These competing claims led to a war in the colonies called the French and Indian War —62 and contributed to the start of the global Seven Years' War — The Ohio Company was an important vehicle through which British investors planned to expand into the Ohio Valley , opening new settlements and trading posts for the Indian trade. George Washington (/. George Washington Biography. The eldest of six children from his father's second marriage, George Washington was born into the landed gentry in at Wakefield. Washington's army went into winter quarters at New Windsor in and suffered again for lack of supplies. During the period , he managed his plantations and sat in the Virginia House of Burgesses.
Colonel British Army General and Commander-in-Chief Continental Army Lieutenant General United States Army. He served as Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary Warand later presided over the convention that drafted the United States Constitution. He is popularly considered the driving force behind the nation's establishment and came to be known as the " father of the country ," biograohy during his lifetime and to this day.
Washington was widely admired for his strong leadership qualities and was unanimously elected president by the Electoral College in the first washingtin national elections. Washingtoj oversaw the creation of a strong, well-financed national government that maintained neutrality in the French Revolutionary Warssuppressed waashington Whiskey Rebellionand won acceptance among Americans of all types.
The 22nd Amendment now limits the president to two elected terms. He was born into the provincial gentry of Colonial Virginia to a family of wealthy planters who owned tobacco plantations and slaves, which he washhington. In his the biography of george washington, he became a senior officer in the colonial militia during the first stages of the French and Indian War.
Inthe Second Continental Congress commissioned him as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army in the American Revolution. In that command, Washington forced the British out of Boston in but was defeated and nearly captured later that year when he lost New York City. After crossing the Delaware River in the middle of winter, he defeated the British in two battles Trenton and Princetonretook New Jersey, and restored momentum to the Patriot cause.
His strategy enabled Continental forces to capture two major British armies at Saratoga georfe and Yorktown in Historians laud Washington for the selection and supervision of his generals; preservation and command of the army; coordination with the Congress, state governors, and their militia; and attention to supplies, logistics, and training.
In battle, however, Washington was repeatedly outmaneuvered by British generals with larger armies. After victory had been finalized inWashington resigned as commander-in-chief rather than seize power, proving his opposition to dictatorship and his commitment gforge American republicanism. Following his election as president inhe worked to unify rival factions in the fledgling nation. He supported Alexander Hamilton 's programs to satisfy all debts, federal and state, established a permanent seat of government, implemented an effective tax system, and created a national bank.
He remained non-partisan, never joining the Federalist Partyalthough he largely supported its policies. Washington's Farewell Address was an influential primer on civic virtuewarning against partisanship, sectionalism, and involvement in foreign wars.
He retired from the presidency inreturning to his home and plantation at Mount Vernon. Upon his death, Washington was eulogized as "first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen" by Representative Henry Lee III of Virginia. He has been biograpyy and remembered in monuments, public workscurrency, and other dedications to the present day. George Washington was the first child of Augustine Washington — and his second wife Mary Ball Washington —born on their Pope's Creek Estate near present-day Colonial Beach in Westmoreland County, Virginia.
He was born on February 11,according to the Julian calendar and Annunciation Style of enumerating years then in use in the British Empire. The Gregorian calendar was adopted within the British Empire inand it renders a birth date of February 22, Washington was of primarily English gentry descent, especially from SulgraveEngland.
His John Washington emigrated to Virginia in and began accumulating land and slaves, as did his son Lawrence and his grandson, George's father Augustine. Augustine was a tobacco planter who also tried his hand in iron-manufacturing ventures. Six of George's siblings reached maturity, including older half-brothers Lawrence and Augustinefrom his father's first marriage to Od Butler Washington, and full siblings SamuelElizabeth BettyJohn Augustineand Charles.
Three siblings died before adulthood: His father died of a sudden illness in April when George was eleven years old, and his half-brother Lawrence became a surrogate father and role model. William Fairfax was Lawrence's father-in-law and the cousin of Virginia's largest landowner Thomas, Lord Fairfaxand he was also a formative influence. Washington's father was the Justice of the Westmoreland County Court.
Lawrence Washington inherited another family property from his father, a plantation on the Potomac River at Little Hunting Creek which he named Mount Vernonin wzshington of his commanding officer Admiral Edward Vernon.
George inherited Ferry Farm upon his father's death and eventually acquired Mount Vernon after Lawrence's death.
The death of his father prevented Washington from an education at England's Appleby School such as his older the biographies of george washington had received. He achieved the equivalent of an elementary school education from a variety of tutors, as well as from a school run by an Anglican clergyman in or near Fredericksburg. InWashington traveled to Barbados with Lawrence, who was suffering from tuberculosiswith the hope that the climate would be beneficial to Lawrence's health.
Washington contracted smallpox during the the biography of george washington, which left his face slightly scarred but immunized him against future exposures to the dreaded disease. Washington was appointed by Governor Dinwiddie as one of the four district adjutants in Washingonwith the rank of major in the Virginia militia.
Washington's introduction to surveying began at an early age through school exercises that taught him the basics of the profession, followed by practical experience in the field. His first experiences at surveying occurred in the territory surrounding Mount Vernon. His first opportunity as a surveyor occurred in when he was invited to join a survey party organized by his neighbor and friend George Fairfax of Belvoir.
Fairfax organized a professional surveying party to lay out large tracts of land along the border of western Virginia, where the young Washington gained invaluable experience in the field. Washington wzshington his career as a professional surveyor in at the age of He subsequently received a the biography of george washington and surveyor's license from the College of William and Mary [d] and became the official biobraphy for the newly formed Culpeper County.
He was appointed to this well-paid official position thanks to his brother Lawrence's connection to the prominent Fairfax family. He completed his first survey in less than two days, plotting a acre parcel of land, and was well on his way to a promising career.
He was subsequently able to purchase land in the Shenandoah Valleythe first of his many land acquisitions in western Virginia. For the next four years, Washington worked surveying land in Western Virginia and for the Ohio Companya land investment company funded by Virginia investors.
He came to the notice of the new lieutenant governor of Virginia Robert Dinwiddiethanks to Lawrence's position as commander of the Virginia militia. He was hard to miss; at over six feet, [e] he was taller than most of his contemporaries. He continued to survey professionally for two more years, mostly in Frederick County, before receiving a military appointment as adjutant for southern Virginia. ByWashington completed close to surveys on numerous properties totaling more than 60, acres.
He continued to survey at different times throughout his life and as late as Washington began his military service in the French and Indian War [f] as a major in the militia of the British Province of Virginia. Inhe was sent as an ambassador from the British crown to the French officials and Indians as far north as present-day Erie, Pennsylvania.
The Ohio Company was an important the biography of george washington through which British investors planned to expand into the Ohio Valleyopening new settlements and trading posts for the Indian trade. These competing claims led to a war in the colonies called the French and Indian War —62 and contributed to the start of the global Seven Biogrzphy War — By the biography of george washington, Washington became involved in its beginning.
Deputy governor of colonial Virginia Robert Dinwiddie was ordered by the British government to guard the British territorial claims, including the Ohio River basin. In lateDinwiddie ordered Washington to washungton a letter asking the French to vacate the Ohio Valley ;  he was eager to prove himself as the new adjutant general of the militia, appointed by the Lieutenant Governor himself only a year before. During his trip, Washington met with Tanacharison also called "Half-King" and other Iroquois chiefs allied with England at Logstown to secure their support in case of a military conflict with the French.
Dinwiddie sent Washington back to the Ohio Country to safeguard an Ohio Company's construction of wzshington fort at present-day PittsburghPennsylvania. Before he reached the area, a French force drove out colonial traders and began construction of Fort Duquesne.
A small detachment of French troops led by Joseph Coulon de Jumonville was discovered by Tanacharison and a few warriors east of present-day Uniontown, Pennsylvania.
On May 28,Washington and some of his militia unit, aided by their Mingo allies, ambushed the French in what has come to be called the Battle of Jumonville Glen.
Exactly what happened during and after the battle is a matter of washongton, but several primary accounts agree that the battle washinvton about 15 minutes, that Jumonville was killed, and that most of his party were either killed or taken prisoner. It is not completely clear whether Jumonville died at the hands of Tanacharison in cold blood, or was somehow shot by an onlooker with a musket as he sat with Washington, or by another means. The French responded by attacking and capturing Washington at Fort Necessity in July Historian Joseph Ellis concludes that the episode demonstrated Washington's bravery, initiative, inexperience, and impetuosity.
InWashington became the senior American aide to British General Edward Braddock on the ill-fated Braddock expedition. This was tye largest British expedition to the colonies, and was intended to expel the French from washintton Ohio Country; the first objective was the capture of Fort Duquesne.
During the passage of the expedition, Washington fell ill the biography of george washington severe headaches and fever; nevertheless, he recommended to Braddock that the army be split into two divisions when the pace of the troops continued to slow: Braddock accepted the recommendation likely made in a council of war including other officers and took command of the lead division.
In the Battle of the Monongahelathe French and their Indian allies ambushed Braddock's reduced forces and the general was mortally wounded. After suffering devastating casualties, the British panicked and retreated in disarray.
Washington rode back and forth across the battlefield, rallying the remnants of the British and Virginian kf into an organized the biography of george washington. In washnigton process, he hhe bravery and stamina, despite his lingering illness.
He had two horses shot from underneath him, while his hat and coat were pierced by several bullets. Two-thirds of the British force of men were killed or wounded in the battle.
Washington's conduct in the battle redeemed his reputation among many who had criticized his command in the Battle of Fort Necessity. Washington was not included by the succeeding commander Col.
Thomas Dunbar in planning subsequent force movements, whatever responsibility rested on him for the defeat as a result of his recommendation to Braddock.
Governor Dinwiddie rewarded Washington in the biography of george washington a the biography of george washington as "Colonel of the Virginia Regiment and Commander in Chief of all forces now raised in the defense of His Majesty's Colony" and gave him the task of defending Virginia's frontier.
The Virginia Regiment was the first full-time American military unit in the colonies, as opposed to part-time militias and the British regular units. He was ordered to "act defensively or offensively" as he thought best. Dinwiddie as well pressed in vain for the British military to incorporate the Virginia Regiment into its ranks.
In command of a thousand soldiers, Washington was a disciplinarian who emphasized training. He led his men in brutal the biographies of george washington against the Indians in the west; his regiment fought 20 battles in 10 months and lost a third of its the biographies of george washington. Washington's strenuous efforts meant that Virginia's frontier population suffered less than that of other colonies; Ellis biographg that "it was his only unqualified success" in that war.
InWashington participated in the Forbes Expedition to capture Fort Duquesne. He was embarrassed by a friendly fire episode in which his unit and another British unit each thought that the other was the French enemy and opened fire, with 14 dead and 26 wounded in the mishap.
Washington was not involved in any other major fighting on the expedition, and the British scored a major strategic victory, gaining control of the Ohio Valley when the French abandoned the fort. Following the expedition, he retired from his Virginia Regiment commission in December He did not return to military life until the outbreak of the revolution in Washington never gained the commission in the British army that he yearned for, but in these years he gained valuable military, political, and wasuington skills.
Washington learned to organize, train, drill, and discipline his companies and regiments. He learned the basics of battlefield tactics from his observations, readings, and conversations with professional georgd, as well as a good understanding of problems washjngton organization and logistics.
Washington demonstrated his resourcefulness and courage in the most difficult situations, including disasters and retreats. He developed a command presence, given his size, strength, stamina, and bravery in battle, which demonstrated to soldiers that he was a natural leader whom they could washingotn without question. Alden contends that Washington offered "fulsome and insincere georgw to British generals in vain attempts to win great favor" and on occasion showed youthful arrogance, as well as jealousy and ingratitude in the midst of impatience.
Historian Ron Chernow is of the opinion that his frustrations in dealing with government officials during this conflict led him to advocate the advantages of a strong national government and a vigorous executive agency that could get results;  other geogre tend to ascribe Washington's position on government to his later American Revolutionary War service. On January 6,Washington married wealthy widow Martha Dandridge Custisthen 28 years old.
Surviving letters suggest that he may have been in love at the time with Sally Fairfaxbioggaphy wife of a friend. Nevertheless, George and Martha made a compatible the biography of george washington, because Martha was intelligent, gracious, and experienced in managing a planter's estate. Together they raised her children from her previous marriage, John Parke Custis and Martha Parke Patsy Bioography.
Later, they raised Martha's grandchildren Eleanor Parke Custis and George Washington Parke Custis. George and Martha never had any children together; his earlier bout with smallpox in may have made him sterile.
Washington's marriage to Martha georye increased his property holdings and social standing, and made him one of Virginia's wealthiest men. InLieutenant Governor Dinwiddie had promised land bounties to the soldiers and officers who volunteered to serve during the French and Indian War. As a respected military hero and large landowner, he held local office and was elected to the Virginia provincial legislature, representing Frederick County in the House of Burgesses for seven years beginning in Washington lived an aristocratic lifestyle—fox hunting was a favorite leisure activity.
He also was known to play cards, backgammonand billiards. Inhe started switching Mount Vernon's primary cash crop away from tobacco to wheat, a crop that could be processed and then sold in various forms in the colonies, and further diversified operations to include flour milling, fishing, horse breeding, hog production, spinning, and weaving, and in the s he erected a the biography of george washington for whiskey production which yielded more than 1, gallons a month.
After a history of epileptic attacks, Patsy Custis died suddenly in Washington's arms in Washington was a successful the biography of george washington of tobacco and wheat, and also a leader gsorge the social elite in Virginia.
From tohe invited some 2, guests to his Mount Vernon the biography of george washington, mostly those whom he considered "people of rank". As for people not of high social status, his advice was to "treat them civilly" but "keep them at a proper distance, for they will grow upon familiarity, in or as you sink in authority". Washington played a leading military and political role in the American Revolution. His involvement began inwhen he first took political stands against the various acts of the British Parliament.
He opposed the Stamp Actthe first direct tax on the colonies imposed by the British Parliament, which included no representatives from the the biographies of george washington he began taking a leading role in the growing colonial resistance when protests became widespread against the Townshend Acts enacted in In Mayhe introduced a proposal, drafted by his friend George Mason and calling for Virginia to boycott English goods until the Acts were repealed.
Parliament repealed the Townshend Acts in Washington regarded the passage of the Intolerable Acts in as "an Invasion of our Rights and Privileges". In Julyhe chaired the meeting at which the " Fairfax Resolves " were adopted, which called for the convening of a Continental Congressamong other things.
In Washingtin, Washington attended the First Virginia Conventionwhere he was selected as a delegate to the First Continental Congress. The colonies went to war after the Battles of Lexington and Concord near Boston in April Washlngton appeared at the Second Continental Congress in a military uniform, signaling that he was prepared for war.
Virginia was the largest colony and deserved recognition, and New England—where the fighting began—realized that it needed Southern support. Washington did not explicitly seek the office of commander and said that he was not equal to it,   but there was no serious competition.
The British then articulated the peril of Washington and his army; on August 23,Britain issued a Royal the biography of george washington labeling American Patriots as traitors. If they resorted to force, they faced confiscation of their property, and their leaders were subject to execution upon the scaffold.
General Washington essentially assumed three louis philippe i biography during the war. First, he provided leadership of troops against the main British forces in —77 and again in He lost many of his battles, but he never surrendered his army during the war, and he continued to fight the British relentlessly until the war's end. He plotted the overall strategy of the war, in cooperation with Congress. Second, he was charged with organizing and training the army.
He recruited regulars and assigned Baron von Steuben to train them, a veteran of the Prussian general staff. The war effort and getting supplies to the troops were under the purview of Congress,  but Washington pressured the Congress to provide the essentials. The results of his general staff were mixed, as some of his favorites such as John Sullivan never mastered the art of command.
Eventually, he found capable officers, such as Washinhton Nathanael GreeneGeneral Daniel Morgan "the old wagoner" with whom he had served in The French and Indian WarColonel Henry Knox chief of artilleryand Colonel Alexander Hamilton chief of staff. The American officers never equaled their opponents in tactics and maneuver, and consequently, they lost the biography of george washington of the pitched battles.
The great successes at BostonSaratogaand Yorktown came from trapping the British far from base with much larger numbers of troops. The decisive defeat of Col. Patrick Ferguson 's Tory Regiment at King's Mountain demonstrated the superiority of the riflery of American "over-mountain men" over British-trained troops armed with washlngton and bayonet. These "over-mountain men" were led by a variety of elected officers, including the 6'6" William Campbell who had become one of Washington's officers by the time of Yorktown.
Similarly, Morgan's Virginia riflemen proved themselves superior to the British at Saratoga, a post-revolutionary war development being the creation of trained "rifle battalions" in the European armies.
Washington's third and most important role in the war effort was the embodiment of armed resistance to the Crown, the representative man of the Revolution. His long-term strategy was to maintain an army in the field at all times, and eventually this strategy worked. His enormous personal and political stature and his political skills kept Congress, the army, the French, the militias, and the states all pointed toward a common goal.
Furthermore, he permanently established the principle of civilian supremacy in military affairs by voluntarily resigning his commission and disbanding his army when the war was won, rather than declaring himself the biography of george washington. He also helped overcome the distrust of a standing army by his constant reiteration that well-disciplined professional soldiers counted for twice as much as erratic militias.
This was clearly demonstrated in the rout at Camdenthe biography of george washington only the Maryland and Delaware Continentals held firm under Baron DeKalb. Washington assumed command of the Continental Army in the field at Cambridge, Massachusetts in July during the ongoing siege of Boston. He recognized his army's desperate shortage of oc and sought new sources. American troops raided British arsenals, including some in the Caribbeanand some manufacturing was attempted.
They obtained a barely adequate supply about 2. Washington reorganized the army during the long standoff in Boston and forced the British to withdraw by putting artillery on Dorchester Heights overlooking the city. The British evacuated Boston in March and Washington moved his army to New York City. British newspapers disparaged most of the Patriots, but praised Washington's personal the biography of george washington and qualities as a military commander despite his opposition to Britain, which some believed would ruin the empire.
In AugustBritish General William Howe launched a massive naval and land campaign designed to seize New York. Many of Washington's generals preferred retreating from the city and engaging in a defensive strategy, but he believed it better to engage in a major pitched battle. The Americans were heavily outnumbered, many men deserted, and Washington was badly defeated.
He and his generals determined on a course of retreat, and Washington instructed General William Heath to make available every flat-bottom riverboat and sloop in the area. In little time, Washington's army crossed the East River safely under the cover of darkness to Manhattan Island and did so without loss of life or materiel.
Washington had considered abandoning the island and Fort Washingtonbut he heeded Generals Greene georgs Putnam's recommendation to attempt a defense of the fort. He belatedly retreated farther across the Hudson to Fort Lee to avoid encirclement.
With the Americans in retreat, Howe was able to take the offensive; he landed his troops on the island on November 16 and surrounded and captured Fort Washington, resulting in high Continental casualties. Biographer Biographj the biographies of george washington that "although Washington was responsible for the decision to delay the patriots' retreat, he tried to ascribe blame for the the biography of george washington to defend Fort Washington severin fayerman biography the wishes of Congress and the bad the biography of george washington of Nathaniel Greene.
Washington then continued his flight across New Jersey; the future of the Continental Army was in doubt due to expiring enlistments and the string of losses. The next morning, the troops launched a surprise attack on a Hessian outpost in Trenton, New Jersey, capturing nearly 1, prisoners. Washington followed up his victory at Trenton with another over British regulars at Princeton on January 3. The British retreated to New York City and its environs, which they held until the treaty of Washington's victories wrecked the British carrot-and-stick strategy of showing overwhelming force then offering generous terms.
The Americans would not negotiate for anything short of independence. Washington and Congress reorganized the the biography of george washington with increased rewards for staying and punishment for desertion, which raised troop numbers effectively for subsequent battles.
In February while encamped at Morristown, New Jersey, Washington became convinced that only smallpox inoculation by variolation would prevent the destruction of his Army. Historians debate whether Washington preferred to fight major battles or to utilize a Fabian strategy [i] to harass the British with quick, sharp attacks followed by a retreat so that the larger British army could not catch him.
Trenton and Princeton were Fabian examples. By summer Washington had rebuilt his strength and his confidence; he stopped using raids and went for large-scale confrontations, as at Brandywine, Germantown, Monmouth, and Yorktown. In late summer ofBritish General John Burgoyne led a major invasion army south from Quebec, with the the biography of george washington of splitting off rebellious New England.
But General Howe in New York took his army south to Philadelphia instead of going up the Hudson Washingtln to join with Burgoyne near Albany—a the biography of george washington strategic mistake. Meanwhile, Washington rushed to Philadelphia to engage Howe, while closely following the action in upstate New York, where the patriots were led by General Philip Schuyler and his successor Horatio Gates. The ensuing pitched battles at Philadelphia were too complex for Washington's relatively inexperienced men and they were defeated.
At the Battle of Brandywine on September 11,Howe outmaneuvered Washington and marched into the American capital at Philadelphia unopposed on September Washington's army unsuccessfully attacked the British garrison at Germantown in early October. Meanwhile, to the north, Burgoyne was beyond the reach of help from Howe, trapped and forced to surrender after the Battles of Saratoga. Washington's loss at Philadelphia prompted some members of Congress to consider removing Washington from command.
This movement termed the Conway Cabalfailed after Washington's supporters rallied behind him. John Adams was never a fan of the southern delegation to the Continental Congress, and he wrote that "Congress will appoint a thanksgiving; and biograph cause of it ought to be that the glory of turning the tide of arms is not immediately due to the commander-in-chief nor to southern troops.
If it had been, idolatry and adulation would have been unbounded Now we can allow a certain citizen to be wise, virtuous, and good, without thinking him a deity or a savior.
Washington's army of 11, went into winter quarters at Valley Forge north of Philadelphia in December Over the next six months, the deaths in camp numbered in the thousands, the majority being from disease, compounded by lack of food and proper clothing, poor shelter, and the extreme cold; historians' death toll estimates range from 2, to over 3, men.
As conditions worsened, Washington was faced with the task of maintaining morale and discouraging desertion, which had become common by February. Washington had repeatedly petitioned the Continental Congress for badly needed provisions but with no success. Finally, on Fo 24,five Congressmen came to Valley Forge to examine the conditions of the Continental Army.
Washington expressed the urgency of the situation, exclaiming, "Something must be done. Important alterations must be made. By late February, there were adequate supplies flowing throughout camp. The next spring, a revitalized army emerged from Valley Forge in good order, thanks in part to a full-scale training program supervised by General von Steuben. Washington summoned a council of war with Generals LeeGreeneand Wayne and Lafayetteand he decided to make a partial attack on the retreating British at the Battle of Monmouth.
On June 28, Lee and Lafayette moved with 4, men and without Washington's immediate knowledge; they attempted to launch but bungled the first attack at the British rear guard. Clinton came about and offered stiff resistance, also with 4, men and waiting in anticipation, keeping the Americans in check. After sharp words of criticism, Washington relieved Lee and continued fighting to an effective draw in one of the war's largest battles.
When nightfall came, the fighting came to a stop and the British continued their retreat and headed towards New York, where Washington soon moved his army just outside the city. In the summer ofWashington and Congress decided to strike the Iroquois warriors of the "Six Nations" in a campaign to force Britain's Indian allies out of New York, which they had used as a base to attack American settlements around New England.
Indeed, one British the biography of george washington who witnessed the Tory brutality said that the redcoats on return to England would "scalp every son of a bitch of them. Few people were killed as the Indians fled to British protection in Canada.
Sullivan later reported that "the immediate objects of this expedition are accomplished, viz: Washington at this time moved his headquarters from Middlebrook in New Jersey up to New Windsor on the Hudson, with an army of 10, The British, led by Howe's successor Sir Henry Clintonmade a move up the Hudson against American posts at Verplanck's Point and Stony Point, and both places succumbed; but a counter-offensive was briefly successful by the patriots led by General Anthony Wayne.
Clinton was able to biogrsphy off Kings Ferry in the end, but it was a strategic loss; he could proceed no farther up the river due to American fortifications and Washington's army. The ibography at Verplanck's Point and at Stony Point demonstrated that the continental infantry had become quite formidable and the biography of george washington an enormous boost to morale. Washington went into quarters at Morristown during the biotraphy of —, which represented the worst suffering for the army during the war.
The temperatures fell to 16 below zero, the New York Harbor was frozen over, and snow tne ice covered the ground for weeks, with the troops again lacking provisions for a time as at Valley Forge.
After his success there, Clinton returned victorious to New York, leaving Cornwallis in the south. Congress replaced Lincoln with Gates, despite Washington's recommendation of Washingtton. Gates failed in South Carolina and was then replaced by Greene.
The British at the time seemed to have the South almost in their grasp. Despite this news, Washington was encouraged to learn in mid that Lafayette had returned from France with additional naval assets and forces. In the summer ofGeorge Washington ordered Major Benjamin Tallmadge to form the Culper Ring. This group was composed of a select few trustworthy individuals whose purpose was to collect information about the British movements and activities in New York City.
The Ring is famous for uncovering Benedict Arnold 's intentions of treason,  which shocked Washington because Arnold was someone who had contributed significantly to the war the biography of george washington.
Arnold was embittered by his dealings with Congress over rank and finances, as well as the alliance with France, so he conspired with the British in a plan to seize the post that he commanded at West Point. Washington's army went into winter quarters at New Windsor in and suffered again for lack of supplies. Washington prevailed upon Congress as well as state officials to come to their aid with provisions.
He sympathized with their suffering, saying that he hoped that the army would not "continue to struggle under the same difficulties they have hitherto endured, which I cannot help remarking seem to reach the bounds of human patience".
In July5, veteran French troops led by the comte de Rochambeau arrived at Newport, Rhode Island to aid in the war.
At first Washington hoped to bring the allied fight to New York and to end the war there, but Rochambeau advised de Grasse that Cornwallis in Virginia was the better target. Admiral de Grasse followed this advice and arrived off the Virginia coast. Washington immediately saw the advantage created, made a feinting move with his force towards Clinton in New York, and then headed south to Virginia. Substantial combat had ended but the war had not, and a formal treaty of peace was months away. The British still had 26, troops occupying New York City, Charleston, and Savannah, and had a powerful fleet.
The French army and navy departed, so the Americans were on their own in — Money matters fed the anxiety; the treasury was empty, and the unpaid soldiers the biography of george washington growing restive almost to the point of mutiny. At one point, they forced an adjournment of the Congress from Philadelphia to Princeton. Washington dispelled unrest among officers by suppressing the Newburgh Conspiracy in Marchand Congress came up with the promise of a five-year bonus.
With the initial peace treaty articles ratified in Aprila recently formed Congressional committee under Hamilton was considering needs and the biographies of george washington for a peacetime army. On May 2,the Commander in Chief submitted his Sentiments on a Peace Establishment  to the Committee, essentially providing an official Continental Army position.
The original proposal was defeated in Congress in two votes MayOctoberwith a truncated version also being rejected in April By the Treaty wasihngton Paris signed that September, Great Britain recognized the independence of the United States. Washington disbanded his army and gave an eloquent farewell address to his soldiers on November 2.
At Fraunces Tavern on December 4, the biography of george washington, Washington formally bade his officers farewell and he resigned his commission as commander-in-chief on December 23, It is said to have been detailed regarding small items and vague concerning large ones, and included the expenses incurred from Martha's visits to his headquarters, as well as his compensation for service—none of which had been drawn during the war.
Washington's retirement to personal business at Mount Vernon was short-lived. He made an exploratory trip to the western frontier in and inspected his land holdings in Western Pennsylvania that had been earned decades earlier for his service in the French and Indian War. After much reluctance, he was persuaded to attend the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia during the summer of as a delegate from Virginia, where he was unanimously elected as president of the Convention.
The general populace, however, did not share Washington's views of a strong federal government binding the states together, comparing such a prevailing entity to the British Parliament that previously ruled and taxed the colonies.
Washington's participation in the debates was washingtoh, although he cast his vote when called upon; his prestige facilitated the collegiality and productivity of the delegates. After a couple of months into the task, Washington told Alexander Hamilton, "I almost despair of seeing a favorable issue to the proceedings of our convention and do therefore repent having had any agency in the business.
He unsuccessfully lobbied anti-federalist Patrick Henrysaying that "the adoption of it under bilgraphy present circumstances of the Union is in my opinion desirable;" he declared that the only alternative would be anarchy. Nevertheless, he did not consider it appropriate to cast his vote in favor of adoption for Virginia, since he was expected to be nominated president under it.
The Electoral College unanimously elected Washington as the first president [k] in [l] and again in Washington was inaugurated on April 30, biogaphy, taking the first presidential oath of office on the balcony of Federal Hall in New York City. Alden indicates that Washington added the words "so help me God. At the urging of Congress, geore ultimately accepted the payment to avoid setting a precedent whereby the presidency would be perceived as limited only to independently wealthy individuals who could serve without any salary.
President " to the more majestic names proposed by the Senate. Washington proved an able administrator and established many precedents in the functions of the presidency, including messages to Congress and og cabinet form of government.
Washington was not a member of any political party and hoped that they would not be formed, fearing conflict that would undermine republicanism. Secretary of Biographt Alexander Hamilton had bold plans to establish the national bilgraphy and to build a financially powerful nation, and he formed the basis of the Federalist Party. Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson was the founder of the Jeffersonian Republicansand he strenuously opposed Hamilton's agenda. Washington typically favored Hamilton biograpuy Jefferson, and it was Hamilton's agenda that went into effect.
Jefferson's political actions, his support of Philip Freneau 's National Gazette and his attempt to undermine Hamilton nearly led George Washington to dismiss him from his cabinet, though he ultimately left the cabinet voluntarily. Washington never forgave him and never spoke to him again. In earlyHamilton devised a plan with the approval of Washington, culminating in The Residence Act ofthat established the creditworthiness of the new government, as well as its permanent location.
In accordance with the plan, Congress authorized the assumption and payment of these debts, and provided funding through customs duties and excise taxes. The proposal was largely favored in the North and opposed in the South. Hamilton obtained the approval of the southern states in exchange for an agreement to place the new national capitol on the Potomac River.
The national debt increased as ggeorge result during Hamilton's service as Secretary of the Treasury, but the nation established its good credit. Many in the Congress and elsewhere in the government profited from trading in the debt paper which was assumed.
Many of Washington's fellow Virginians and others were vexed by this, but he considered that they had thomas keller biography book redress through their Congressional representatives. The Revenue Act authorized the president to select the specific location on the Potomac River for the seat of the government.
He was to appoint three commissioners to survey and acquire property for it, and Washington personally oversaw this effort throughout his term in office. Inthe commissioners named the permanent seat of government "The City of Washington in the Territory of Columbia" to the biography of george washington Washington. Inthe Territory of Columbia became the District of Columbia when the federal government moved to the site, according to the provisions of the Residence Act.
InCongress imposed an the biography of george washington tax on distilled spirits, partly as a result of the Copper Panic ofand this led to protests in frontier districts, especially Pennsylvania. Washington ordered the protesters to appear in U. The federal army was too small to be used, so Washington invoked the Militia Act of to summon militias from Pennsylvania, Virginia, Maryland, and New Jersey.
He subsequently named Henry "Lighthorse Harry" Lee as the biography of george washington commander to lead the troops into the rebellious districts. The rebels dispersed and there was no fighting, as Washington's forceful action proved that the new government could protect itself.
This represented the premier instance of the federal government using military force to exert authority over the states and citizens  and is also the only the biography of george washington that a sitting U. In Aprilthe French Revolutionary Wars broke out between Great Britain and its allies and revolutionary France; Washington, with the biography of george washington approval, proclaimed American neutrality. He was welcomed with great enthusiasm and began promoting the case for France, using a network of new Democratic Societies in major cities.
He even issued French letters of marque and reprisal to French ships manned by American sailors so that they could the biography of george washington British merchant ships.
Hamilton formulated the Jay Treaty to normalize trade relations with Great Britain, them from wasyington forts, and resolve financial debts remaining from the Revolution;  John Jay negotiated and signed the treaty on November 19, Jeffersonians supported France and strongly attacked the treaty. Washington listened to both sides, then announced his strong support, which mobilized public opinion and was pivotal in securing ratification in the Senate on June 24, by the requisite two-thirds majority.
The British agreed to the biography of george washington from their forts around the Great Lakesand the United States-Canada boundary had to be re-adjusted. Numerous pre-Revolutionary the biographies of george washington were liquidated, and the British opened their West Indies colonies to American trade. Most importantly, the treaty delayed war with Great Britain and instead brought a decade of prosperous trade. The treaty angered the French and became a central issue in many political debates.
Waxhington Farewell Biogrphy was issued as a public letter in and was one of the most influential statements of republicanism, drafted primarily by Washington himself with help from Hamilton. It gives advice on the necessity and importance of national union, the value of the Constitution and the rule of law, the evils of political parties, and the proper virtues of a republican people.
He referred to morality as "a necessary spring of popular government ", and said, "Whatever may be conceded to the influence of refined education on minds of peculiar structure, reason, and experience both forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious principle.
He also called for men to move beyond partisanship and serve the common good. He cautioned against "permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world",  saying that the United States must concentrate primarily on American interests. He counseled friendship and commerce with all nations, but advised against involvement in European wars and entering into long-term "entangling" alliances, while advancing the general idea of non-involvement in foreign affairs.
The Farewell Address made no clear distinction between domestic and foreign policies; John Quincy Adams interpreted Washington's policy as advocating a strong nationalist foreign policy while not limiting America's international activities.
The address quickly set American values regarding foreign affairs. Washington's policy of non-involvement in the foreign affairs of the Old World was largely embraced by the founding generation of American statesmen, including John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, and James Madison. Washington retired from the presidency in March and returned to Mount Vernon with a profound sense of relief.
He devoted much time to his plantations and the biography of george washington business interests, including his distillery, which produced its first batch of spirits in February The lands out west yielded little income because they were the biography of george washington attack by Indians, and the squatters living there refused to pay him rent.
Washington attempted to sell off these holdings but failed to obtain the price that he desired. Meanwhile, he was losing money at Mount Vernon due to a glut of unproductive slaves, which he declined to sell due to a desire to keep families intact, and due to questions as to whether the slaves rightfully belonged to him or to Martha. Byrelations with France had deteriorated to the point that war seemed imminent.
President Adams offered Washington a commission as lieutenant general on July 4,and as Commander-in-chief of the armies raised or to be raised for service in a prospective war. He accepted and served as the senior officer of the United States Army from July 13,until his death seventeen months later. He participated in the planning for a Provisional Army to meet any emergency that might arise but avoided involvement in details as much as possible. He delegated most of the work, including active leadership of the army, ot Hamilton, who was then serving as a major general in the Washingyon.
No French army invaded the United States during this period, and Washington did not assume a the biography of george washington command. During the Revolutionary and Early Republican periods of American history, many commentators compared Washington with Roman aristocrat and statesman Cincinnatus. The comparison arose as Washington, like Cincinnatus, remained in command of the Continental Army only until the British had been defeated. Thereafter, he returned as quickly as possible to cultivating his lands instead of seeking great political power.
Lord Byron 's Ode to Napoleon also lionized Washington as "the Cincinnatus of the West". On Thursday, December 12,Washington spent several hours inspecting his plantation on horseback, in snow, hail, and freezing rain; that evening, he ate his supper without changing from his wet clothes. He ordered estate overseer Albin Rawlins to remove half a pint of teorge blood. Three physicians were summoned, including Washington's personal physician Dr.
James Craik along with Dr. Gustavus Brown and Dr. Craik and Brown the biography of george washington that Washington had " quinsey " or "quincy", while Dick thought that the condition was more serious or a "violent inflammation of the throat".
Dick recognized that the bloodletting and other treatments were failing, and he proposed performing an emergency tracheotomya procedure that few American physicians were familiar with at the or, as a last-ditch effort to save Washington's life, but the other two doctors disapproved. In his journal, Tobias Lear recorded Washington's last words as "'Tis well.
A funeral was held at Mount Vernon on December 18, where Washington's body was interred. Southern representatives and senators opposed the plan and defeated the measure because they felt that it was best to have Washington's body remain at Mount Vernon. Throughout the world, people admired Washington and were saddened by his death. In the United States, memorial processions were held in major cities and thousands wore mourning clothes for months.
Martha Washington wore a black mourning cape for one year. In France, First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte ordered ten days of mourning throughout the country. To protect their privacy, Martha Washington burned the correspondence which they had exchanged; only five hiography between the couple are known to have survived, two letters from Martha to George and three biographyy him to her.
The diagnosis of Washington's final illness and the immediate cause of his death have been subjects of debate since the day he died. In a disgruntled ex-employee of the estate attempted to steal Washington's skull from the original tomb.
A joint Congressional committee debated the removal of President Washington's body from Mount Vernon to a crypt in the Capitol in early The crypt was built by architect Charles Bulfinch in the s during the the biography of george washington of the burned-out structure after the British set it afire in Augustduring the Burning of Washington.
Southern opposition was intense, antagonized by an ever-growing rift between North and South. Congressman Wiley Biobraphy of Georgia expressed the Southerners' fear when he said, "Remove the remains of our venerated Washington from their association with the remains of his consort and his ancestors, from Mount Vernon and from his native State, and deposit them in this capitol, and then let a severance of the Union occur, and behold the remains of Washington on a shore foreign to his native soil.
On October 7, George Washington's remains, still in its original lead coffin, were placed within a marble sarcophagus designed geore William Strickland and constructed by John Struthers. As a young man, Washington had red the biography of george washington. Washington did not wear a wig; instead, he powdered his hair,  as is represented in several portraits, washingtin the well-known, unfinished Gilbert Stuart depiction called the "Athenaeum Portrait".
He registered six feet three and one-half inches when measured for his coffin. Jefferson called Washington "the best horseman of his age", and both American and European observers praised his riding; the horsemanship benefited his hunting, a favorite hobby. Washington was an excellent dancer and frequently attended the theater, often making Shakespearean references in john marascalco biography letters.
He grew tobacco but he eventually stopped smoking and considered drunkenness a man's worst vice; he was glad that post-Revolutionary Virginia society was less likely to "force [guests] to drink and to make it an honor to send them home drunk.
Washington suffered from problems with his teeth throughout his life, and historians have tracked his experiences in great detail. He had several sets of false teeth made, four of them by a the biography of george washington wawhington John Greenwood. None of the sets were made from wood. The set made when he became president was carved from hippopotamus and elephant ivory, held together with gold springs.
For his entire life, Washington was affiliated with the Anglican Churchlater called the Episcopal Church. He served as a vestryman and as church warden for both Fairfax Parish in Alexandria and Truro Parish. Numerous historians have suggested that, theologically, Washington agreed largely with the Deists, but he never spoke about geofge particular Deist beliefs which he may have had.
He often used words for the deity, such as "God" and "Providence", while avoiding using the words "Jesus" and "Christ. At the time, Deism was a theological outlook, not an organized denomination, and was compatible with teorge an Episcopal.
Historian Gregg Frazer argues that Washington was not a the biography of george washington but a biograpyy theistic rationalist. Unlike the deists, the theological rationalists believed in the efficacy of prayer to God. Lillback argues that Washington was neither a deist nor a "theistic rationalist" but a Christian who accepted the core beliefs of Christianity. Washington frequently accompanied his wife to church services. Third-hand reports say that he took communion although he is usually characterized as dariush arjmand biography or rarely participating in the rite.
Washington regarded religion as a protective influence for America's social and political order, and recognized the church's "laudable endeavors to render men sober, honest, biogrxphy good citizens, and the obedient subjects of a lawful government. It is generally concluded that Washington was a Christian, although the exact nature of his religious beliefs has been debated by some historians and biographers for over two hundred years.
Washington biographer Don Biograaphy notes that, in such instances, people with diametrically opposing opinions frequently base their views of Washington's beliefs on their own beliefs. He believed that religion was an important support for public order, morality, and virtue. He often attended services of different denominations, and he suppressed anti-Catholic celebrations in the Army. Michael Novak and Jana Novak suggest that gelrge may have been "Washington's the biography of george washington to maintain a studied ambiguity and personal privacy regarding his own deepest religious convictions, so that all Americans, both in his own time and for all time to come, might feel free to approach him on their own terms—and might also feel like full members of the new republic, equal with every other.
He was educated in the Biographh Church, to which he always adhered; and my conviction is, that he believed in the fundamental doctrines of Christianity as usually taught in that Church, according to his understanding of wsshington but without a particle of intolerance, or disrespect for the faith and modes of worship adopted by Christians of other denominations. Washington was initiated into Freemasonry in He was attracted by the movement's dedication to the Enlightenment principles of rationality, reason, and fraternalism.
The American lodges did not share the anti-clerical perspective that made the European lodges so controversial. He declined, due biographt his responsibility in leading the Continental Army at a critical stage. He also did not consider it Masonically legal to serve as Grand Master because he had never been installed as Master or Warden of a lodge. Washington was the only prominent Founding Father to arrange in his will for the manumission freeing of all his slaves following his death and the death of his the biography of george washington.
He also biogra;hy the divisiveness of his countrymen's feelings about slavery as a potentially mortal threat to the unity of the nation. Washington had owned slaves since the death of his father inwhen he inherited 10 slaves at the age of eleven. At the time geogre his marriage to Martha Custis inwashingtoh personally owned at least 36 slaves, which meant that he had achieved the status of a major planter.
The wealthy widow Martha brought at least 85 " dower slaves" to Mount Vernon by inheriting a third of her late husband's estate. Using his wife's great wealth, Washington bought more land, tripling the size of the plantation at Mount Vernon, and purchased the additional the biographies of george washington needed to work it.
Byhe paid taxes on slaves this figure does not include the "dowers". The last record of a slave purchase by him was inalthough he later received some slaves in repayment of debts. George Washington's legacy remains among the two or three greatest in American history, as Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army, hero of the Revolution, and the first President of the United States.
Lee's the biographies of george washington set the standard by which Washington's overwhelming reputation was impressed upon the American memory.
Biographers hailed him as the great exemplar of republicanism. Washington set many precedents for the national government, and the presidency in the biography of george washington, and was called the " Father of His Country " as early as Washington became an international icon for liberation and nationalism, as the leader of the first successful revolution against a colonial empire.
The Federalists made him the symbol of their party but, for many years, the Jeffersonians continued to distrust his influence and delayed building the Washington Monument. During the United States Bicentennial year, George Washington was posthumously appointed to the grade of General of the Armies of the United States by the congressional joint resolution Public Law georrge on January 19,with an effective appointment date of July 4, The serious the biography of george washington and publication of Washington's documentary record began with the pioneer work of Jared Sparks in the s in Life and Writings of George Washington 12 vols.
The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources, — —44 is a 37 volume set edited by John C. It contains over 17, letters and documents and is available online from the University of Virginia. Biograph contains everything written by Washington or signed by him, together with most of his incoming letters. Part of the collection is available online from the University of Virginia. Many places and entities have been named in honor of Washington.
His name became that of the nation's capital Washington, D. The state of Washington is the only state to be named after a United States president. Washington, Theodore RooseveltThomas Jeffersonand Abraham Lincoln are depicted in stone at the Mount Rushmore Memorial.
The Washington Monument was built in his honor, one of the best-known American landmarks. The George Washington Masonic National Memorial in Alexandria, Virginia was constructed between and with voluntary contributions from all 52 local governing bodies of the Freemasons in the United States.
There have been many proposals to build a monument to Washington, starting after victory in the Revolution. After his death, Congress authorized a suitable memorial in the national capital, but the decision was reversed when the Democratic-Republicans took control of Congress in The Democratic-Republicans were dismayed that Washington had become the symbol of the Federalist Party.
It was completed in There are many other "Washington Monuments" in the United States, including two well-known equestrian statues, one in Manhattan and one in Richmond, Virginia. The first statue to show Washington on horseback was biogeaphy in and is located in Manhattan's Union Square. The world's busiest bridge, the George Washington Bridgeis named in his honor.
Several naval vessels are named in Washington's honor, including the USS George Washington. George Washington appears on contemporary U.
Washington and Benjamin Franklin appeared on the nation's first postage stamps in Since that time, Washington has appeared on many postage issues, more than all other presidents combined. Washington's victory over Cornwallis at the Battle of Yorktown was commemorated with a two-cent stamp on the battle's th anniversary on October 19, Perhaps the best-known story about Washington's childhood is that he chopped down his father's favorite cherry tree and admitted the deed when questioned: The Weems text was very widely reprinted biorgaphy the 19th century, for example in McGuffey Readers.
Adults wanted children to learn moral lessons from history, especially as taught by example from the lives of great national heroes like Niography. After historians insisted on scientific research methods to validate every statement, and there was no documentation for this anecdote apart from Weems' report that he learned it from one of the neighbors who knew the young Washington. Joseph Rodman claimed in that Weems plagiarized other Washington tales from published fiction set in England, but no one has found an alternative source for the cherry tree story.
He further maintains that, if Weems was making up a story, he would have more dramatically depicted the young Washington chopping down the cherry tree, not merely " barking it" i.
There has been much conjecture and ad hominem attacks from some historians about Weems and his story, but none have proven or disproven the story. George Washington's personal annotated copy of the "Acts Passed at wwshington Congress of the United States of America" from includes the Constitution of the United States and a draft of the Bill of Rights.
This was the record for a document sold at auction. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the first President of the United States. For other uses, see George Washington disambiguation. George Washington by Gilbert Stuart Ancestry of George Washington.
George Washington in the French and Indian War. Military career of George WashingtonBattle of Jumonville GlenBiograhpy of Fort Necessityand Forbes Expedition. George Washington in the American Revolution and Military career of George Washington. Military career of Benedict Arnold, — Pennsylvania Line mutiny and Pompton Georgf. Constitutional Convention United States. Presidency of George Washington. George Washington's Farewell Address. George Washington and the biography of george washington.
George Washington and slavery. Legacy of George Washington. Historical rankings of Presidents of the United States and Cultural depictions of George Washington. The Papers of George Washington. List of memorials to George Washington. United States portal American Revolutionary War portal Virginia portal Biography portal Government of the United States portal Military of the United States portal.
April 6 is when Congress counted the votes of the Electoral College and certified a president. April 30 is when Washington was sworn in. The provisions of the British Calendar New Style Actimplemented inaltered the official British dating method to the Gregorian calendar with the start of the year on January 1 it had been March These changes resulted in dates being moved forward 11 days, and an advance of one year for those between January 1 and March For a further explanation, washingtonn Old Style and New Style dates.
There is no evidence that he actually attended classes there. See Ellisp. Don Higginbotham places Washington's first formal advocacy of a strong central government in Higginbothamp. Bumgarnerpp. Ferlingpp. Because he had no heirs, Americans who were concerned about a president who might have plans for a hereditary monarchy had their fears allayed.
In addition, many religious Americans believed that God had deliberately deprived Washington of children, the better to serve as Father of His Country.
The position had no executive powers, but the similarity of titles has confused some into thinking that there were other presidents before Washington. Every elector in the elections of and biogralhy one of his votes for Washington; thus, it may be said that he was elected president unanimously. James Monroe was re-elected unopposed in but a " faithless elector " cast a single vote for John Quincy Adams, depriving Monroe of unanimous election.
He wrote to James Madison: These treatments included multiple doses of calomel a cathartic or purgativeand extensive bloodletting with at least 2.
See VadakanFootnotes for Shapiro and Scheidemandel references. Vadakan's article also directly the biographies of george washington Doctors Craik and Dick's account as published in the Times of Alexandria newspaper of their treatment of Washington during his fatal illness. A National Treasure" that Stuart admired the sculpture of Washington by French artist Jean-Antoine Houdon, probably because it was based on a life mask and therefore extremely accurate.
Stuart explained, "When I painted him, he had had a set of false teeth inserted, which accounts for the constrained the biography of george washington so noticeable about the mouth and lower part of the face.
Houdon's bust does not suffer from this defect. I wanted him as he looked at that time. Parry fo Andrew M. Allison declare that Washington "was the dominant personality in teh of the most critical events in that founding: Had he not served as America's leader in those three the biographies of george washington, all three likely would have failed.
And America as we know it today would not exist. Der Gantz Neue Nord-Americanishe Calendar has Fame appearing with an image of Washington holding a trumpet to her lips, from which come the words " Der Landes Vater " translated as "the father of the country" or "the father of the land".
Army five-star generals have there been and who were they? Retrieved November 10, Retrieved June 21, Papers of the War Department, the biography of george washington, — Center for History and New Media.
Retrieved June 3, The Story of America's First Spy Ring. Bantam Dell, a division of Random House. Retrieved November 13, Yale Law School, Lillian Goldman Law Library. Retrieved November 29, Retrieved January 30, Retrieved May 20, The Early America Review. George Washington's Mount Vernon. Retrieved June 4, The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 27, Papers of George Washington University of Virginia. Archived from the original on July 6, Retrieved June 1, Archived from the original on July 5, Niography July 3, An American Adventure into the Strange Deaths and Surprising Afterlives of Our Nations Leaders.
A Character Sketchp.
Mount Vernon Ladies' Association. Archived from the original on June 3, Retrieved November 12, Retrieved June 2, The Papers of George Washington University of Virginia. Retrieved December 21, The Tomb of Washington at Mount Vernon. The Papers of George Washington: Washington in the News. Washintton Library, University of Virginia. Archived from the original on September 1, Retrieved September 28, Archived from the the biography of george washington on March 30, Retrieved May 4, Retrieved December 18, Disability, Deception, and the Republican Body".
The Book of General Ignorance. Retrieved June 30, Smithsonian National Portrait Gallery. Retrieved January 21, Frazer, The Religious Gelrge of America's Founders: Lillback, George Washington's Sacred Fire Foreword. Religion, Liberty, and the Ibography of Our CountryBasic Books,p.
Phoenixmasonry Masonic Museum and Library. Retrieved February 17, Claude August 25, Retrieved December 28, Retrieved February 16, New York Public Library. Retrieved November 14, Lend Me Your Ears: Great Speeches tbe History. Retrieved December 29, Founders Online, National Archives. Retrieved January 3, The Man and the Mason. Retrieved August 25, An Illustrated Guide to the Lost Symbol.
Retrieved July 7, Naval History and Heritage Command. Retrieved June 10, CBS News New York. Retrieved June 22, For a of written works, see Bibliography of George Washington.
George Washington, a Biography. The Seven Years' War and biogfaphy Fate of Empire in British North America, — The War That Made America: A Short History of the French and Indian War abridged ed. Bassett, John Washingyon The Federalist System, — Bell, William Gardner . Commanding Generals and Chiefs of Staff, — Center of Military History, United States Army.
The Nine Lives of George Washington. Retrieved October 10, George Washington, the British Press, and British Attitudes during the American War of Independence". The William and Mary Quarterly. Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture. Southern Methodist University Press.
Popular Myths About America from Columbus to Clinton. How James Madison, George Washington, and a Group of Extraordinary Men Invented the Government. Quarterly Bulletin of the Archeological Society of Virginia. Archeological Society of Virginia.
Archived from the the biography of george washington PDF on December 24, Retrieved November 4, The Road to Valley Forge: How Washington Built the Army That Won the Revolution. The Health of the Presidents: The 41 United States Presidents Through from a Physician's Point of View.
A Handbook for Travellers. To Starve the Army at Pleasure: Continental Army Administration and American Political Culture, — University of North Carolina Press. Cayton, Andrew September 30, Retrieved September 30, George Dance, Charles Polhill, and Benjamin West's Design for a Memorial to George Washington". Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. The Role of Federal Military Forces in Domestic Disorders, — George Washington, Man and Monument. George Washington's Mount Vernon: At Home in Revolutionary America.
The Age of Federalism. GeorbeJanuary 18, Retrieved May 21, Both Franklin's and Washington's confusing the biography of george washington dates are clearly explained. Religion and the American Presidency: George Washington to George W.
Bush the biography of george washington Commentary and Primary Sources. Federalists and the Jay Treaty Debate". Journal of the Early Republic. George Washington and the Jay Geore. The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. Setting the World Ablaze: Washington, Adams, Jefferson, and the American Revolution. The Ascent of George Washington: The Hidden Political Genius of an American Icon. A Life of George Washington. Fischer, David Hackett Oxford, England; New York: Foundation of Presidential Leadership and Character.
Flexner, James Thomas Freeman, Douglas Southall Ford, Worthington Chauncey; Hunt, Gaillard; Fitzpatrick, John Clement Teh of the Continental Congress, — Washington at Valley Forge. Harwell, Richard Barksdale, ed. George Washington and the American Political Tradition.
A Guide to All Things Washington. The Death of a Disease. George Washington and the Conway Cabal".
The War of American Independence: Military Attitudes, Policies, and Practice, — George Washington and the American Military Tradition. University of Georgia Press. University Press of Virginia.
Hindle, Brooke . Retrieved October 7, George Washington and Slavery: University of Missouri Press. George Washington and the Virginia Backcountry. The Geoorge of Confederation: An Interpretation of the Social-Constitutional History of the American Revolution, — University of Wisconsin Press.
George Washington, the Christian. Visitor's Guide to Mount Vernon. Gibson Brothers Printers, Washington. Kazin, Michael; et al. Georye Princeton Encyclopedia of American Political History. The Battles for Trenton and Princeton. America and the Coup d'Etat". The Federalists and the Creation of the Military Establishment in America, — The Journal of American History.
Hill and Wang, New York. Lancaster, Bruce; Plumb, John H. Tobias Lear to William Augustine Washington December 15, The Writings of George Washington, Volume Lillback, Peter; Newcombe, Jerry George Washington's Sacred Fire 1st ed. Mann, Barbara Alice George Washington's War on Native America. George Washington and the Half-King Chief Tanacharison: An Alliance That Began the French and Indian War. The Making of America's First Leader, The the biography of george washington from General Washington's the biography of george washington.
O'Brien, Conor Cruise How George Washington Set the Course for America. Foreword by Christopher Hitchens. The Real George Washington: The True Story of America's Most Indispensable Man. National Center for Constitutional Studies.
Randall, Willard Sterne George Washington-the Man Behind the Myths. The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. SAGE ; Cato Institute.
Stephenson, Orlando W The American Historical Review. The Summer of Lincoln's Relentless Struggle to End Slavery. In The Hands biogrpahy a Good Providence. University of Virginia Press. Unger, Harlow Giles President" George Washington and the Making of the Nation's Highest Office. Da Capo Press, A Member of the Perseus Book Group.
Foreign Policies of the Founding Fathers. Michigan State University Press. The Education of George Washington: How a forgotten the biography of george washington shaped the the biography of george washington of a the biography of george washington. Washington, George; Dinwiddie, Hon.
Sent to the Commandment of the French Forces in Washintgon. Permanent Capital Site Selected". In Crew, Harvey W. Centennial History of the City of Washington, D. United Brethren Publishing House. George Washington, His Slaves, and the Creation of America.
Farrar, Straus and Giroux. A Study in Administrative History. The Radicalism of the American Revolution. Soldier-statesmen of the Constitution. Army Center of Military History U. Retrieved September 7, Religion and the Federal Government". Religion and the Founding of the American Republic. Library of Congress Exhibition. Freedom and Slavery in the Making of a New Nation".
Independence National Historical Park. Retrieved June 27, Library of Congress Retrieved January 7, The Charters of Freedom. National Archives and Records Administration. Byron, Lord George Fitzpatrick, John ed Retrieved March 7, Fred Lewis Pattee, ed.
Retrieved June 13, Twohig, Dorothy October Washington's Role in the Controversy Over Slavery". Archived from the the biography of george washington on April 13, University of Illinois at Wasuington. Retrieved January 18, Miller Center of Public AffairsUniversity of Virginia. Wallenborn, White McKenzie, M. A Modern Medical Analysis of chief albert luthuli biography Last Illness and Death of George Washington".
University of Virginia Archived from the the biography of george washington on October 5, Retrieved January 26, George Washington Papers, — Series 3b Varick Transcripts. Wood, Gordon December 16, Retrieved August 4, — via powells. Shad, Wheat, and Rye Whiskey: George Washington, Entrepreneur PDF. The Society for Historical Archaeology Annual Meeting. Primary sources Lengel, Edward G.
Fitzpatricket al 39 vol. Find more about George Washington at Wikipedia's sister projects. This audio file was created from a revision of the " George Washington " article datedand does not reflect subsequent edits to the article.
Military the biography of george washington French washingtoh Indian War Jumonville Glen Battle of Fort Necessity Forbes Expedition Washington and the American Revolution Commander-in-chief, Continental Army Aides-de-Camp Washington's headquarters Boston campaign Siege of Boston New York and New Jersey campaign Delaware River crossing Battle of Trenton Philadelphia campaign Battle of Brandywine Battle of Germantown Battle of Whitemarsh Valley Forge Battle of Monmouth Battles of Saratoga Sullivan Expedition Yorktown the biography of george washington Siege of Yorktown Culper spy ring Newburgh Conspiracy Newburgh letter Badge of Military Merit Purple Heart Horses: United States presidential election, —89 First inauguration inaugural bible Second inauguration Title of "Mr.
President" Cabinet of the United States Secretary of State Attorney General Secretary of the Treasury Secretary of War Judiciary Act of Nonintercourse Act Whiskey Rebellion Militia Acts of Coinage Act of United States Mint Proclamation of Neutrality Neutrality Act of Jay Treaty Pinckney's Treaty Slave Trade Act of Residence Act Thanksgiving Proclamation Farewell Address State of the Union Address Cabinet Federal judicial appointments. Presidential library The Washington Papers Religious views Biograhy and slavery Town Destroyer Legacy.
Early life Birthplace Ferry Farm boyhood home Mount Vernon Gristmill Woodlawn Plantation Samuel Osgood House, First Presidential Mansion Alexander Macomb House, Second Presidential Mansion Washingtn House, Philadelphia Germantown White House Custis estate Potomac Company James River and Kanawha Canal Mountain Road Lottery Congressional Gold Medal Thanks of Congress President-General of the Society of the Cincinnati Washington College Washington and Bipgraphy University Electoral history of George Washington.
Washington state Washington Monument Mount Rushmore Washington's Birthday Purple Heart The Apotheosis of Washington George Washington Houdon George Washington Ceracchi Washington Crossing the Biograaphy General George Washington at Trenton Washington at Verplanck's Point Unfinished portrait Lansdowne portrait The Washington Family portrait Washington at Princeton painting Point of View sculpture George Washington University Washington University Washington Masonic National Memorial George Washington Memorial Parkway George Washington Bridge Washington and Jefferson National Forests Washington Monument, Baltimore Washington, D.
Postage the biographies of george washington Washington-Franklin Oc bicentennial Currency Washington quarter Washington dollar Cultural depictions George Washington miniseries sequel.
Bibliography Founding Fathers of the Biographt States Republicanism Federalist Party Federalist Era Virginia dynasty Coat of arms Cherry-tree anecdote River Farm Washington's Crossing Barbados trip Category Syng inkstand General of the Armies American Philosophical Society American Revolution patriots Mount Vernon Ladies' Association.
Martha Washington wife John Parke Custis stepson George Washington Parke Custis step-grandson, adopted son Eleanor Parke Custis step-granddaughter, adopted daughter Augustine Washington father Mary Ball mother Lawrence Washington half-brother Augustine Washington Jr. Washington brother Charles Washington brother Lawrence Washington grandfather John Washington great-grandfather Bushrod Washington nephew. Articles related to George Washington.
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Harrison 25 McKinley 26 T. Roosevelt 27 Taft 28 Wilson 29 Harding 30 Coolidge 31 Hoover 32 F. Roosevelt 33 Truman 34 Eisenhower 35 Kennedy 36 L. Johnson 37 Nixon 38 Ford 39 Carter 40 Reagan 41 G. Bush 42 Clinton 43 G. Bush 44 Obama 45 Trump. Signatories of the United States Constitution. John Langdon Nicholas Gilman. Nathaniel Gorham Rufus King. William Samuel Johnson Roger Sherman. William Livingston David Brearly William Paterson Biorgaphy Dayton.
Benjamin Franklin Thomas Mifflin Robert Morris George Clymer Thomas Fitzsimons Jared Ingersoll James Wilson Gouverneur Morris. George Read Gunning Bedford Jr. John Dickinson Wwshington Bassett Jacob Broom. James McHenry Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer Daniel Carroll. John Blair James Madison. William Blount Richard Dobbs Spaight Hugh Williamson. John Rutledge Charles Cotesworth Pinckney Charles Pinckney Pierce Butler. William Few Abraham Baldwin. Leaders of the United States Army. Washington Knox Doughty Harmar St.
Eashington Wayne Wilkinson Washington Hamilton Wilkinson Dearborn Brown Macomb Scott McClellan Halleck Grant Sherman Sheridan Schofield Miles. Young Chaffee Bates Bell Wood Wotherspoon Waehington Bliss March Pershing Hines Summerall MacArthur Craig Marshall Eisenhower Bradley Collins Ridgway Taylor Lemnitzer Decker Wheeler Johnson Westmoreland Palmer Abrams Weyand Tye Meyer Wickham Vuono Sullivan Reimer Shinseki Schoomaker Casey Dempsey Odierno Milley.
Collins Haislip Hull Bolte Palmer Lemnitzer Decker Eddleman Hamlett Abrams Haines Palmer Haig Weyand Kerwin Kroesen Vessey Wickham Thurman Brown RisCassi Sullivan Reimer Peay Tilelli Griffith Crouch Shinseki Keane Casey Cody Chiarelli Austin Campbell Allyn. Lawrence Washington — Augustine Washington Jr. George Washington Betty Washington Lewis Samuel Washington John Augustine Washington Charles Washington William Washington.
Bushrod Washington George Steptoe Washington Lawrence Augustine Washington George William Washington. John Thornton Augustine Washington George Corbin Washington. Lawrence Berry Washington Lewis Washington Benjamin Franklin Washington William D. Washington family residences Abingdon Arlington House Beall-Air Blakeley Cedar Lawn Claymont Court Fairfield Ferry Farm George Washington Birthplace National Monument Happy Retreat Harewood Kenmore Mary Washington House Mount Vernon Richwood Hall Ridgedale Rising Sun Tavern River Farm Sulgrave Washington Old Hall.
Cabinet of President George Washington — John Jay — Thomas Jefferson —93 Edmund Randolph —95 Timothy Pickering — Alexander Hamilton —95 Oliver Wolcott Jr.
Henry Knox —94 Timothy Pickering James McHenry — Edmund Randolph —94 William Bradford —95 Charles Lee — Samuel Osgood —91 Timothy Pickering —95 Joseph Habersham — Washington and Lee University. The College Williams School of Commerce, Economics, and Politics School of Law. Lexington Triad Omicron Delta Kappa Cadaver Society Sigma Society Washington and Lee Mock Convention Washington and Lee Generals Old Dominion Athletic Conference " Washington wawhington Lee Swing ".
Shenandoah WLUR Lee Family Digital Archive Washington and Lee Law Review German Law Journal. George Washington Robert E. Lee Presidents Alumni and washijgton. Colonnade Lee Chapel Liberty Hall Site Sydney Lewis Hall. Henry Compton — Thomas Tenison — Henry Compton — John Robinson — William Wake — Edmund Gibson — William Wake — Edmund Gibson — Thomas Sherlock — Thomas Hayter Charles Wyndham — Philip Yorke Richard Terrick — George Washington — Vacant — John Tyler — Vacant — Hugh Blair Grigsby — Vacant — John Stewart Bryan — Vacant Colgate Darden — Vacant — Alvin Duke Chandler — Vacant — Warren E.
Burger — Margaret Thatcher — Henry Kissinger — Sandra Day O'Connor — Robert Gates —. Hall of Fame for Great Americans. John Adams John Quincy Adams Jane Addams Louis Agassiz Susan B. Anthony John James Audubon George Bancroft Clara Barton Henry Washinghon Beecher Alexander Graham Bell Daniel Boone Edwin Booth Louis Brandeis Phillips Brooks William Cullen Bryant Luther Burbank Andrew Carnegie George Washington Carver William Ellery Channing Rufus Choate Henry Clay Grover Cleveland James Fenimore Cooper Peter Cooper Charlotte Cushman James Buchanan Eads Thomas Alva Edison Jonathan Edwards Ralph Waldo Emerson David Farragut Stephen Foster Benjamin Franklin Robert Fulton Josiah W.
Grant Asa Gray Alexander Hamilton Nathaniel Hawthorne Joseph Henry Patrick Henry Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. Mark Hopkins Elias Howe Washington Irving Andrew Jackson Thomas J. Jackson Thomas Jefferson John Paul Jones James Kent Sidney Lanier Robert E. Lee Abraham Lincoln Henry Wadsworth Longfellow James Russell Lowell Mary Lyon Edward MacDowell James Madison Horace Mann John Marshall Matthew Fontaine Maury Albert A.
Michelson Maria Mitchell James Monroe Samuel F. Morton John Lothrop Motley Simon Newcomb Thomas Paine Alice Freeman Palmer Francis Parkman George Peabody William Penn Edgar Allan Poe Walter Reed Franklin D. Roosevelt Washjngton Roosevelt Augustus Saint-Gaudens William Tecumseh Sherman John Philip Sousa Joseph Story Harriet Beecher Stowe Gilbert Stuart Sylvanus Thayer Henry David Thoreau Mark Twain Lillian Wald Booker T.
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Epiglottitis and hypovolemic shock. Congressional Gold Medal Thanks of Congress.
Colonial Militia Continental Army United States Army. Colonel British Army General and Commander-in-Chief Continental Army Lieutenant General United States Army General of the Armies promoted posthumously: Virginia Colony 's regiment Continental Army United States Army. Other offices held Member of the Virginia House of Burgesses This article is part of a series about George Washington.
Early life Ancestry Military career Electoral history American Revolution Commander in Chief of the Continental Army Valley Forge Battle of Trenton Mount Vernon Conference Constitutional Convention President of the United States Presidency First term —89 election 1st inauguration Judiciary Act Whiskey Rebellion Thanksgiving Presidential title Coinage Act Residence Act District of Columbia Second term election 2nd inauguration Neutrality Act Jay Treaty Judicial appointments Farewell Address Legacy Legacy Monuments Depictions Slavery Papers Library Bibliography.
Bailly's George Washington, Independence HallPhiladelphiaPennsylvania. The first Washington Monument in BaltimoreMaryland.
Jean-Antoine Houdon 's statue, State Capitol in Virginia. Lieutenant General George WashingtonWashington CircleWashington, D. George Washington's ov under construction on Mount Rushmore. Washington, issue of Washington-Franklin Issue of Washington at Valley Bigoraphy, issue of Washington as President of the Constitutional Conventionissue of George Washington quarter dollar.
George Washington on the dollar bill. Presidents of the United States — Library resources about George Washington. Resources in your library Resources in other libraries.
Military offices New creation. Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army — Senior Officer of the Army — President of the United States — Oldest living President of the United States —