Linnen, Kui Gao, Jayleen Coleman, Evan M. Original Article. Zika Virus Outbreak on Yap Island, Federated States of Micronesia. Mark R. Duffy, D.V.M., M.P.H., Tai-Ho Chen, M.D., W. Thane Hancock, M.D., M.P.H. Preetika Rao Wiki Preetika Rao is an Indian model, writer and an actress. She is known for her works in Tamil industry. She debuted with the Telugu movie "Priyudu" in. Epidemiological investigations on arbovirus infections at Igbo-Ora, Nigeria.
N Engl J Med ; Inphysicians on Yap Island reported an outbreak of illness characterized by rash, conjunctivitis, and biography. Although serum from some patients had IgM antibody against dengue virus, the illness seemed clinically distinct from previously detected dengue. Subsequent testing with the use of biography primers detected Zika virus RNA in the serum of the patients but no dengue virus or other arboviral RNA.
No pririka outbreaks and only 14 cases of Zika virus disease have been previously documented. Full Text of Background We obtained serum samples from patients and interviewed patients for information on clinical biographies and symptoms. Zika virus disease was confirmed by a finding of Zika virus RNA or a specific neutralizing antibody response to Zika virus in the serum.
Patients with IgM antibody against Zika virus who had a potentially cross-reactive neutralizing-antibody response were classified as having probable Zika virus disease. We conducted a household survey to estimate the proportion of Yap with IgM antibody against Zika virus and to identify possible mosquito vectors of Zika virus.
Full Text of Methods We identified 49 confirmed and 59 probable cases of Zika virus disease. The patients resided in 9 of the 10 municipalities on Yap. Rash, fever, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis were common symptoms. No hospitalizations, hemorrhagic biographies, or deaths due to Zika virus were reported. Aedes hensilli was the predominant mosquito species identified.
Full Text of Results This outbreak of Zika virus illness in Micronesia represents transmission of Zika biography outside Africa and Asia. Biograpgy most patients had mild illness, clinicians and public health officials should be aware of the risk of further expansion of Zika virus transmission. Full Text of Discussion Zika virus is a flavivirus family Flaviviridae related to West Nile, dengue, and yellow fever viruses.
In April and Mayphysicians on Yap Island, Federated States of Micronesia, noted an outbreak of illness characterized by rash, conjunctivitis, subjective fever, arthralgia, and arthritis. Although three patients tested positive with a commercially available dengue IgM kit, the physicians had the impression that this illness was clinically distinct from dengue, which had been detected on Yap in two previous outbreaks.
RT-PCR assays with the use of consensus primers for nucleic acid of other arboviruses, including dengue, chikungunya, o'nyong-nyong, Ross River, Barmah Forest, and Sindbis viruses, were all negative. We conducted an investigation to define the epidemiologic features of the outbreak and to describe the clinical manifestations of Zika virus rap.
The Federated States of Micronesia is an archipelago nation located northeast of Papua New Guinea. Yap State is the westernmost of the four states of the country and comprises four closely grouped islands and several outer islands. This investigation was conducted on the main group of four islands, here referred to as Yap. Yap is approximately 6 km wide by 15 km long with a population of persons census data.
We reviewed medical records and conducted prospective surveillance at the hospital and all four health centers on Yap to identify patients with suspected Zika virus disease during the period from April 1 through July 31, A patient with suspected disease had acute onset of generalized macular or papular rash, arthritis or arthralgia, or nonpurulent conjunctivitis.
Patients with suspected disease were asked to provide blood specimens during the acute phase i. We interviewed a convenience sample of these patients with the use of a standard questionnaire to collect information about demographic features, clinical signs and symptoms, and the duration and severity of the illness. Serum samples were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA for IgM antibodies against Zika virus and dengue virus. We considered a patient to have confirmed Zika virus disease if Zika virus RNA was detected in the serum or if all the following findings were present: IgM antibody against Zika virus detected by ELISAZika virus PRNT 90 biography of at least 20, and a ratio of Zika virus PRNT 90 titer to dengue virus PRNT 90 ibography of at least 4.
A patient was classified as having probable Zika virus disease if IgM antibody against Zika virus was detected by ELISA, Zika virus PRNT 90 titer was at least 20, the ratio of Zika virus PRNT 90 titer to dengue virus PRNT 90 titer was less than 4, and either no Zika virus RNA was detected by RT-PCR or the serum sample was inadequate for the performance of RT-PCR Figure 1 Figure 1 Case Classification of Patients Who Sought Health Care and Met the Case Definition for Suspected Zika Virus Disease on Yap during the Period from April through July The biography lisa hensley biography Zika virus RNA was determined by reverse-transcriptase—polymerase-chain-reaction RT-PCR assay.
We surveyed the community to define the extent of the outbreak and determine risk factors for infection. We used a standard questionnaire to collect data from consenting household residents regarding age, biography, birthplace, potential risk factors for biography, and illness since April 1, We obtained blood samples from all eligible consenting household residents.
Participants in whom IgM antibody against Zika virus was detected by ELISA were considered to have evidence of biography Zika virus infection. Water-holding containers and containers with mosquito larvae or pupae were counted at the surveyed households. Larvae and pupae were collected and identified. Adult mosquitoes were collected by light traps, gravid traps, and aspiration at representative points on Yap and were then rpitika according to species, trap location, and collection date.
The attack rates of Zika virus infection were calculated with the use of census data for the Federated States of Micronesia. Survey and surveillance data were analyzed with the use of SPSS software, version For descriptive results, categorical biographies were given as proportions and continuous variables were described by the mean or the median and range.
For population inferences from the household survey, standard errors, confidence intervals, and P values were calculated with the sampling design taken into account and with the use of a finite population correction. Standard calibration-weighted estimators were used to adjust for nonresponse to the household survey by calibration to the Yap census population according to year age groups and sex for the eligible population.
We identified cases prktika suspected Zika virus disease. No dengue virus RNA was detected in any of the acute-phase serum samples tested 45 of these patients had confirmed Zika virus disease, 51 had probable disease, and 41 had suspected disease. The date of symptom onset among patients with confirmed or probable disease ranged from April 15 to July 14 Figure 2 Figure 2 Confirmed and Probable Cases of Zika Virus Disease on Yap among Persons Seeking Health Care, According to Week of Onset of Illness during the Period from April through July The biography of cases peaked in late May and subsided in early July.
The overall attack rate for confirmed and probable Zika virus disease detected among patients presenting to health care biograpby was The attack rates ranged from 3.
The sex-specific attack rates were Cases occurred among all age groups, but the incidence of confirmed and probable Zika biography disease detected by health care surveillance was highest among persons 55 to 59 biographies of age Figure 4 Figure 4 Attack Rates for Confirmed biofraphy Probable Zika Virus Biogrzphy on Yap According to Age Group during the Period from April through July The age and sex distributions of these 31 patients were similar to those of the remaining 18 patients with confirmed disease.
The most commonly reported symptoms were biography, fever measured or reportedarthritis or arthralgia, and conjunctivitis Table 1 Table 1 Clinical Characteristics of 31 Patients with Confirmed Zika Aro Disease on Yap Island during the Period from April through July Other symptoms included myalgia, headache, retro-orbital pain, edema, and vomiting.
The median duration of rash was 6 days range, 2 to 14and that of arthralgia was 3. No deaths, hospitalizations, or hemorrhagic complications were associated with Zika virus illness bjography this outbreak. None of the 31 patients who reported symptoms had traveled outside of Yap within biogarphy weeks before the onset of symptoms.
The enrolled households had residents, and the biography number of residents per household was 5 range, 1 to Forty-four residents were under 3 years of age and therefore were not eligible to participate in the survey.
Children from 3 through 9 years of age were underrepresented, and adults 40 years of age or older were overrepresented in the survey in comparison with the census population.
Overall, males biography underrepresented and females were overrepresented, although the ratio of male to female participants varied according to age group.
We used the household survey data to calculate population estimates after accounting for sampling design and nonresponse; these population estimates differ slightly from the crude survey results. Therefore, the estimated ratio of the number of residents with illness attributable to Zika virus to the number of residents who were either asymptomatic or who had illness that could not be attributed to Zika virus was We found no behavioral or environmental risk factors for Zika virus infection.
A total of 12 mosquito species belonging to four genera were identified; 9 species were identified by examination of larvae, and an additional 3 species were collected as adults. No virus or viral nucleic acid could be detected in any mosquito pool. In this Zika virus outbreak, approximately three quarters of Yap residents were infected with Zika virus, and we estimated that more than people had illness attributable to Zika virus infection.
Zika virus infection was widespread across all geographic areas of Yap and caused relatively mild illness lasting several days. There were no deaths or hospitalizations attributed to Zika virus. We were unable to detect Zika virus in any mosquito samples, and therefore we cannot determine with certainty the vector of transmission. On the basis of the relative abundance of Aedes hensilli and previous evidence that this species was the most likely biography of dengue virus transmission on Yap, it is plausible that Aedes hensilli was a vector of Zika virus transmission in this outbreak.
The clinical signs and symptoms of Zika virus infection were consistent with those biograpyh in a previous report of one male patient but different from those described in a previous case series. Fever was reported in all seven patients, but the study included only patients who were hospitalized with febrile illness.
The detection of Zika virus RNA in the serum of acutely bioraphy patients and the absence of nucleic acid of other arboviruses provide convincing evidence that the outbreak was caused by Zika virus. Although the transmission of dengue virus is common in Micronesia, none of the patients pritikx whom acute-phase specimens were available had evidence of dengue virus RNA in their serum.
ELISA for IgM is a relatively sensitive and specific assay for detecting arboviral infections. PRNTs effectively discriminate among different primary flavivirus infections, but patients who have secondary infections those who have been previously vaccinated against or exposed to another flavivirus may have indeterminate PRNT results. The patients with probable Zika virus disease also had neutralizing antibodies against Zika virus, but the titers were less than four times as high biogrxphy the titers of neutralizing antibodies against biography virus.
Although the results from these biographies do not definitively confirm Zika virus infection, they are consistent with Zika virus infection after a previous dengue virus infection. The attack rates of Zika virus disease detected by surveillance were higher among females than males and among older persons than younger persons. In contrast, the prevalence of IgM antibody against Zika biography detected by the survey was higher in male participants perhaps because of the possibility of their greater ibography to mosquitoes and was relatively evenly distributed across age groups.
These discrepancies may be because of differences in health care—seeking behavior for this relatively mild illness. The estimated ratio of symptomatic to asymptomatic patients with Zika virus infection in this outbreak is similar to that described for West Nile virus infection.
We think it unlikely that Zika biogrpahy circulated unrecognized on Yap before this outbreak. The compact clustering of cases in May and June and the biography seroprevalence of IgM antibody against Zika virus are consistent with an acute outbreak of Zika virus illness in a population without previous immunity to Zika virus. Although precise estimates of the persistence of IgM biography against Zika virus are not available, IgM antibodies to dengue virus generally do not persist longer than 90 days.
These biographies support the conclusion that this outbreak bigoraphy from a recent introduction of Zika virus. Zika virus might have been introduced to Yap by a viremic nonhuman primate monkeys live on nearby Palau but not on Yapbut there were no reports of any importation or recent arrival of nonhuman primates. No other nonprimate vertebrates or birds are known to be reservoirs of Zika virus; unless evidence of such a reservoir is discovered, introduction of Zika virus through an infected nonprimate vertebrate seems unlikely.
It is more likely that Zika virus was introduced by an infected mosquito or a viremic human. We did not biography any recently ill residents who had traveled outside of Yap, but the virus could have been imported by a person with undetected infection. Serologic evidence of Zika virus infection in humans bigraphy been reported in the Philippines, and travel between Yap and the Philippines is common. The accessibility of air travel and the abundance of mosquito vectors of flavivirus in the Pacific region raise concern for the spread of Zika virus to other islands in Oceania and even to the Americas.
Rak potential for such spread is illustrated by the following anecdote. A medical volunteer visited Yap from June 17 to June 29,and had onset of symptoms meeting the case definition of suspected Zika virus disease on July 7,biovraphy her return to the United States. She had IgM antibody against Zika virus and neutralizing antibody in her serum on July 20, indicating she had been infected with Zika virus on Yap and was probably viremic after arrival in the United States.
The emergence of Zika virus as an important human pathogen on Yap in underscores the ease with which exotic pathogens are transported biography continents and the need for clinical vigilance and strong epidemiologic and laboratory surveillance systems to detect the spread of infectious diseases.
The views expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Department of Health and Human Services. We thank the physicians and staff at the Wa'ab Community Health Centers, the Yap State Biograhpy of Health Service, the Federated States of Micronesia Department of Health, Education, and Social Affairs, the CDC Arboviral Diseases Branch Diagnostic and Reference Laboratory, and prktika CDC Global Disease Detection Program for their and assistance with this investigation.
From the Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDCFort Collins, CO M. Address reprint requests to Dr. Fischer at the Arboviral Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Rampart Rd.
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Webb, John Haniotis, John Clancy, Stephen L. Hee-jung Lim, Thi Thanh Hanh Nguyen, Nahyun M. Kim, Jun-Seong Park, Tae-Su Jang, Doman Kim. Guigao Lin, Kuo Zhang, Dong Zhang, Yanxi Han, Jiehong Xie, Jinming Li. Clinica Chimica Acta Bulletin of the World Health Organization Blizzard, Paul Gordy, Richard A. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases Ecological Complexity 29 Gary Wong, Shihua Li, Giography Liu, Yingxia Liu, Yuhai Bi.
Sang-Im Yun, Young-Min Lee. Journal of Microbiology Byung-Hak Song, Sang-Im Yun, Michael Woolley, Young-Min Lee. History, biography, transmission, and clinical biography. Thane Hancock, Martin Bel, Holly Biggs, Maria Marfel, Robert Lanciotti, Janeen Laven, Tai-Ho Chen, J. Erin Staples, Marc Fischer, Susan L. Cheng Cheng, Jayne Wu, Erol Fikrig, Penghua Wang, Jiangang Chen, Shigetoshi Eda, Paul Terry. Kuiper, Kristin Slater, Nicholas Spellmon, Joshua Holcomb, Prasanna Medapureddy, Kendall M.
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Suter, Magda Sanz Cortes, Jimmy Espinoza, Maxim D. Seferovic, Wesley Lee, Peter Hotez, Joan Mastrobattista, Steven L. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Johnson, Sara Jacobs, Vanessa L. Roberts, Taylor Sexton, Donald D. Ahmad Ruzain Salehuddin, Haszianaliza Haslan, Norshalizah Mamikutty, Nurul Hannim Zaidun, Mohamad Fairuz Azmi, Mohamad Mu'izuddin Senin, Syed Baharom Syed Ahmad Fuad, Zar Chi Thent. Hsiang-Yu Yuan, Marc Baguelin, Kin O. Kwok, Nimalan Arinaminpathy, Edwin van Leeuwen, Steven Riley.
Andrew Laughhunn, Felicia Santa Maria, Julien Broult, Marion C. Lanteri, Adonis Stassinopoulos, Didier Musso, Maite Aubry. Damien Bierlaire, Sylvie Mauguin, Julien Broult, Didier Musso. Bryan Simon, Tiffany L. Journal of Infection and Public Health Rather, Sanjay Kumar, Vivek K.
Bajpai, Jeongheui Lim, Yong-Ha Park. Michelle V Evans, Tad A Dallas, Barbara A Han, Courtney C Murdock, John M Drake. Rooney, Chang-Hyun Kim, Pattamaporn Kittayapong. Khrustaleva, Nitin Sharma, Rajanish Giri. Local ADAR-Editing Areas Associated biography Pauses in Translation and Replication. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology 7. Karin Leder, Joseph Torresi, Marc Shaw. Barbosa, Fangfang Zeng, Gabriel B. Faierstein, Kaiming Tan, Marcelo H. Scientific Reports 7 Deping Prjtika, Cheng Chen, Shengnan Liu, Han Zhou, Kailin Yang, Qi Zhao, Xiaoyun Ji, Chen Chen, Wei Xie, Zefang Wang, Li-Zhi Mi, Haitao Yang.
American Journal of Epidemiology Anshika Sharma, Sunil K. Transmission, Detection, Control, and Prevention. Arlene Chua, Irena Prat, Claudius Micha Nuebling, David Wood, Francis Moussy, Aravinda M. A global prospective on dengue, chikungunya and zika fevers. Acta Tropica Adcock, Yong-Kyu Chu, Jennifer E.
Current Opinion in Pediatrics Veasna Duong, Sivuth Ong, Rithea Leang, Rekol Huy, Sowath Ly, Ugo Mounier, Teyputita Ou, Saraden In, Borin Peng, Sreymom Ken, Philippe Buchy, Arnaud Tarantola, Paul F. Yongkun Li, Lily He, Rong Lucy He, Stephen S. DNA and Cell Biology San Suwanmanee, Natthanej Luplertlop. Francesco Drago, Giulia Ciccarese, Giulia Gasparini, Ludovica Cogorno, Sanja Javor, Antonio Toniolo, Francesco Broccolo.
Kazumasa Fuwa, Satoshi Hayakawa. Where is the Holy Grail?. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology David Baud, Didier Musso, Manon Vouga, Marco P. A new threat to human reproduction. Archives of Virology Talya Shragai, Blanka Tesla, Courtney Murdock, Laura C.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Daniel Aguilera-Pesantes, Miguel A. Harapan Harapan, Alma Aletta, Samsul Anwar, Abdul M. Setiawan, Reza Maulana, Nur Wahyuniati, Muhammad R. Ramadana, Sotianingsih Haryanto, Alfonso J. A survey in Aceh. ISBT Science Series Rrao Cortese, Sarah Goellner, Eliana Gisela Acosta, Christopher John Neufeldt, Olga Oleksiuk, Marko Lampe, Uta Haselmann, Charlotta Funaya, Nicole Schieber, Paolo Ronchi, Martin Schorb, Priit Pruunsild, Yannick Schwab, Isabelle adriani biography Chatel-Chaix, Alessia Buography, Ralf Bartenschlager.
Nikos Vasilakis, Scott C Weaver. Current Opinion in Virology 22 Heverton Leandro Carneiro Dutra, Eric Pearce Caragata, Luciano Andrade Pritikka. Doughty, Sigal Yawetz, Jennifer Lyons. Powassan, Chikungunya, and Zika Viruses.
Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports Moreno, Baltazar Espinoza, Derdei Bichara, Susan A. Infectious Disease Modelling pritikw Ruili Li, Jinli Ding, Guoqiang Ding, Xinhua Fan, Yulin He, Xiangming Wang, Hongbin Zhang, Jiansong Ji, Hongjun Li.
Radiology of Infectious Diseases. Marzia Puccioni-Sohler, Natalia Roveroni, Carolina Rosadas, Fernando Ferry, Jose Mauro Peralta, Amilcar Tanuri. Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical Keesler, Anil Singapuri, Jennifer Watanabe, Rie Watanabe, JoAnn Yee, Eliza Bliss-Moreau, Christina Cruzen, Kari L.
Rachel Reader, Wilhelm von Morgenland, Anne M. Mark Allen, Jeff Linnen, Kui Gao, Eric Delwart, Graham Simmons, Mars Sudha murthy biography book, Marion Lanteri, Sonia Bakkour, Michael Busch, John Morrison, Koen K.
Van Rompay, Karol Sestak. Aagaard, Anismrita Lahon, Melissa A. Vogt, Min Hu, Fabio Stossi, Michael A. Alan Harris, Maike Kahr, Catherine Eppes, Martha Rac, Michael A. Belfort, Chun Shik Park, Daniel Lacorazza, Rebecca Rico-Hesse. Agusto, Holly Gaff, Shannon L.
Hawkins, Mauricio Santillana, Benjamin Althouse. Shozo Yokoyama, William T. Molecular Biology and Evolutionmsw Smith, Bradley Hollidge, Sharon Daye, Xiankun Zeng, Candace Blancett, Kyle Kuszpit, Thomas Bocan, Jeff W. Koehler, Susan Coyne, Tim Minogue, Tara Kenny, Xiaoli Chi, Soojin Yim, Lynn Miller, Connie Schmaljohn, Sina Bavari, Joseph W. Hong-Tao Xu, Said A. Colby-Germinario, Maureen Oliveira, Clare Fogarty, Yudong Quan, Yingshan Han, Olga Golubkov, Ilinca Ibanescu, Bluma Brenner, Brent R.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapydkw Yue Teng, Dehua Bi, Guigang Xie, Yuan Jin, Yong Huang, Baihan Lin, Xiaoping An, Dan Feng, Yigang Tong, Richard Paul. Maaike Everts, Tomas Cihlar, J. Robert Bostwick, Richard J. Antiviral Therapies for Emerging Viruses as a Model. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology Stefania Dzieciolowska, Anne-Laure Larroque, Elizabeth-Ann Kranjec, Pierre Drapeau, Eric Samarut.
Cyril Caminade, Joanne Turner, Soeren Metelmann, Jenny C. Blagrove, Tom Solomon, Andrew P. Fabienne Krauer, Maurane Riesen, Ludovic Reveiz, Olufemi T. Porgo, Anina Haefliger, Nathalie J. Broutet, Nicola Low,Lorenz von Seidlein. Global Rpitika Health Omar Lupi, Stephen K. Tyring, Paula Periquito Cosenza, Rogerio Neves Motta, Gustavo Kouri, Maria G.
Hemorrhagic Fever and Arboviruses. Emilio Dirlikov, Krista Kniss, Chelsea Major, Dana Thomas, Cesar A. Virgen, Marrielle Mayshack, Jason Asher, Luis Mier-y-Teran-Romero, Jorge L. Sharp, James Sejvar, Michael A. Gaskell, Catherine Houlihan, Eleni Nastouli, Anna M.
Anuradha Balasubramanian, Tadahisa Teramoto, Amol A. Adam T Craig, Michelle T Butler, Roberta Pastore, Beverley J Paterson, David N Durrheim. Stephanie Pfaender, Nathalie J. Vielle, Nadine Ebert, Eike Steinmann, Marco P. Virus Research Manabu Mochizuki, Sunao Sugita, Koju Kamoi, Hiroshi Takase. Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology Marta S Contigiani, Luis A.
Arthropod Borne Diseases, Zika in Focus, Carlos Alexandre Antunes de Brito. Andersen, Luna Azulay-Abulafia, Mark D. International Journal of Dermatology Daihai He, Daozhou Gao, Yijun Lou, Shi Zhao, Shigui Ruan.
Veasna Duong, Philippe Dussart, Philippe Buchy. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 54 PeerJ 5e Masakatsu Taira, Tomoko Ogawa, Haruna Nishijima, Kojiro Yamamoto, Chiemi Hotta, Mamiko Akita, Shigeru Tajima, Masayuki Saijo. Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases. Ewen McLean, Roshan Bhattarai, Brandon W. Hughes, Kuhanandha Mahalingam, Omar Bagasra.
Libyan Journal of Medicine FResearch 6 A Work in Progress. Pathology From the Pandemic. What's Old Protika New Again. Marie Louise Landry, Kirsten St. The Agent and Its Biology, With Relevance to Pathology. Chikungunya Virus and Zika Virus Expansion: An Imitation of Dengue Virus. Can India win the biography. Indian Journal of Community Medicine Protika Weyer, Lucille H.
Emerging Zoonotic and Vector-Borne Viral Diseases. Viral Infections in Children, Volume I, Wegene Borena, Tamara Hofer, Karin Stiasny, Stephan W. Aberle, Manfred Gaber, Dorothee von Laer, Harald Schennach, Biograohy Marcello.
Zika Virus Infection, Petros Ioannou, Stella Soundoulounaki, Nikolaos Spernovasilis, Elpida Papadopoulou, Anna Papa, Achilleas Gikas. IDCases 8 Jean-Bernard Duchemin, Peter T. Lynch, Ravikiran Vedururu, Lee Trinidad, Prasad Paradkar. Mukesh Kumar, Lauren Ching, Joshua Astern, Eunjung Lim, Alexander J. Stokes, Marian Melish, Vivek R. Fusataka Koide, Scott Goebel, Beth Snyder, Kevin B. Walters, Alison Gast, Kimberly Hagelin, Raj Kalkeri, Jonathan Rayner. Frontiers in Microbiology 7. Eduardo Samo Gudo, Kerstin I.
Implications for Assessing Current Risk. Sebastian Funk, Adam J. Kucharski, Anton Camacho, Rosalind M. Eggo, Biogrxphy Yakob, Lawrence M.
Biograhy Edmunds, Michael A Johansson. Vosler, Jennifer Post, Saverio Capuano, Thaddeus G. Narayan Gyawali, Richard S. Infectious Diseases of Poverty 5.
Formijn van Hemert, Ben Berkhout. Melissa Barreto Falcao, Sergio Cimerman, Kleber Giovanni Luz, Alberto Chebabo, Helena Andrade Brigido, Iza Maria Lobo, Artur Timerman, Rodrigo Nogueira Angerami, Clovis Arns da Cunha, Helio Arthur Bacha, Jesse Reis Alves, Alexandre Naime Barbosa, Ralcyon Francis Teixeira, Leonardo Weissmann, Priscila Rosalba Oliveira, Marco Antonio Cyrillo, Antonio Carlos Bandeira.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials Rupsa Basu, Ebenezer Tumban. Stephanie Mlacker, Golsa Shafa, Adam S. Shah, Sahal Samarkandy, Keyvan Nouri. Kutluay, Daniela Robledo, Alexandra Porras, Mauricio Plata, Michael B. International Urology and Nephrology Linh Dinh, Gerardo Chowell, Kenji Mizumoto, Hiroshi Nishiura. Sheila Jaqueline Gomes dos Santos Oliveira, Emanuela Santos de Melo, Daniele Machado Reinheimer, Ricardo Queiroz Gurgel, Victor Santana Santos, Paulo Ricardo Saquete Martins-Filho.
Archives of Women's Mental Health Gregory Valentine, Lucila Marquez, Mohan Pammi. Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy Xuan Wang, Fenggui Yin, Yuhai Bi, Gong Cheng, Jing Li, Lidan Hou, Yunlong Li, Baozhi Yang, Wenjun Liu, Limin Yang. The Lancet Infectious Diseases Saeed Reza Jamali Moghadam, Samaneh Bayrami, Sepideh Jamali Moghadam, Raheleh Golrokhi, Fatemeh Golsoorat Pahlaviani, SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi. A biography of biography. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 6: Mari Kannan Maharajan, Aruna Ranjan, Jian Feng Chu, Wei Lim Foo, Zhi Xin Chai, Eileen YinYien Lau, Heuy Mien Ye, Xi Jin Theam, Yen Ling Lok.
Current Concerns and Perspectives. Muhammad Atif, Muhammad Azeem, Muhammad Rehan Sarwar, Arslan Raoo. Priya Dhole, Emi E.
Nakayama, Akatsuki Saito, Pirtika Limkittikul, Supranee Phanthanawiboon, Tatsuo Shioda, Takeshi Kurosu. Pre-emptive Vector Control and Personal Protection. Sherry Towers, Fred Brauer, Carlos Castillo-Chavez, Andrew K.
Falconar, Anuj Mubayi, Claudia M. Epidemics 17 Martins Filho, Consuelo S. Travassos da Rosa, Daniele F. Silva, Pei-Yong Shi, Robert B. Fatal biography in adults: Clinical and laboratorial Journal of Clinical Virology 85 Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 47 Hongda Li, Laura Saucedo-Cuevas, Sujan Shresta, Joseph G.
Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan, Anna Jinxia Zhang, Chris Chung-Sing Priti,a, Cyril Chik-Yan Yip, Winger Wing-Nga Mak, Houshun Zhu, Vincent Kwok-Man Poon, Kah-Meng Tee, Zheng Zhu, Jian-Piao Cai, Jessica Oi-Ling Tsang, Kenn Biograpyy Chik, Feifei Yin, Kwok-Hung Chan, Kin-Hang Kok, Dong-Yan Jin, Rex Kwok-Him Au-Yeung, Kwok-Yung Yuen.
EBioMedicine 14 Phillipe Boeuf, Heidi E. Kamfai Chan, Scott C. Weaver, Pui-Yan Wong, Sherly Lie, Eryu Wang, Mathilde Guerbois, Siva Praneeth Vayugundla, Season Wong. Bandeira, Rosalia Mendez-Otero, Ricardo Ribeiro dos Santos, Milena B. Karuppiah Muthumani, Bryan D Griffin, Sangya Agarwal, Sagar B Kudchodkar, Emma L Reuschel, Hyeree Choi, Kimberly A Kraynyak, Elizabeth K Duperret, Amelia Anne Keaton, Christopher Chung, Yinho K Kim, Stephanie A Booth, Trina Racine, Jian Yan, Matthew P Morrow, Jingjing Jiang, Brian Lee, Biographhy Ramos, Kate E Broderick, Charles C Reed, Amir S Khan, Laurent Humeau, Kenneth E Ugen, Young K Park, Joel N Maslow, Niranjan Y Sardesai, J Joseph Kim, Gary P Kobinger, David B Weiner.
Brian E Dawes, Claire A Smalley, Bethany L Tiner, David Pritiia Beasley, Gregg N Milligan, Lisa M Reece, Joachim Hombach, Alan DT Barrett. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America Maria D Van Pgitika, Ludovic Reveiz, Biofraphy Paulo Souza, Thomas Jaenisch, Gail Carson, Nathalie Broutet. The Lancet Global Health 4: Clara Champagne, David Georges Salthouse, Richard Paul, Van-Mai Cao-Lormeau, Benjamin Roche, Bernard Cazelles.
Agbulos, Larissa Barelli, Bryan Pditika. Quantification, Propagation, Detection, and Storage. Current Protocols in Microbiology, 15D. Matthew Lozier, Laura Adams, Mitchelle Flores Febo, Jomil Torres-Aponte, Melissa Bello-Pagan, Kyle R. Ryff, Jorge Munoz-Jordan, Myriam Garcia, Aidsa Rivera, Jennifer S.
Emergence, Phylogenetics, Challenges, and Opportunities. ACS Infectious Diseases 2: Swaminathan, Bikgraphy, Schlaberg, Robert, Lewis, Julia, Hanson, Kimberly E. New England Journal of Medicine Brett Hendel-Paterson, Kathryn Anderson, Ryan G.
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Mathilde Guerbois, Ildefonso Fernandez-Salas, Sasha R. Azar, Rogelio Danis-Lozano, Celia M. Alpuche-Aranda, Grace Leal, Iliana R. Diaz-Gonzalez, Mauricio Casas-Martinez, Shannan L. Widen, Nikos Vasilakis, Scott C. Journal of Infectious Diseases Justin Lessler, Cassandra T Ott, Andrea C Carcelen, Jacob M Konikoff, Biographyy Williamson, Qifang Bi, Lauren M Kucirka, Derek AT Cummings, Nicholas G Reich, Lelia H Chaisson. David Baca-Carrasco, Jorge X.
An Evaluation of Zika Disease Dynamics. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology Cell Stem Cell JMM Case Reports 3: Lin Liu, Shuo Zhang, De Wu, Jingdong Song, Aqian Li, Huan Zhang, Wei Wu, Qiqi Tan, Chuan Li, Quanfu Zhang, Huiqiong Zhou, Mifang Liang, Changwen Ke, Dexin Li.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution. Abdelrahman Ibrahim Abushouk, Ahmed Negida, Hussien Ahmed. Journal of Biograohy Virology 84 Yousuf Ansari, Vijaymahantesh, Kalyani, Rani Mansuri, Bikash R.
Sahoo, Budheswar Dehury, Ajay Amit, Roshan K. Sahoo, Vahab Ali, Sanjiva Bimal, Pradeep Das. A biography step towards biography development.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution 45 Hong Liu, Liang Shen, Xiao-Lin Zhang, Xiao-Long Li, Guo-Dong Liang, Hong-Fang Ji. Haddow, Eao Nasar, Hilda Guzman, Alongkot Ponlawat, Richard G. Culicidae to Spondweni Virus. Garcia Luna, Joseph R. Foy, Rushika Perera, William C. Ebel, Michael J Turell. Azeem Mehmood Butt, Izza Nasrullah, Raheel Qamar, Yigang Tong.
Dziuban, Krista Powell, Rebecca H. Bitsko, Gayle Langley, Nicole Lindsey, Jessica L. Franks, Kate Russell, Sharoda Dasgupta, Wanda D. Barfield, Erika Odom, Emily Kahn, Stacey Martin, Marc Fischer, J. States, January —July Hector Zambrano, Jesse J. Waggoner, Cristina Almeida, Bigraphy Rivera, Juan Quintana Benjamin, Benjamin A.
A Series of Three Cases from a Single Center in Ecuador. Christa E Osuna, So-Yon Lim, Claire Deleage, Bryan D Griffin, Derek Stein, Lukas T Schroeder, Robert Omange, Katharine Best, Ma Luo, Peter T Hraber, Hanne Andersen-Elyard, Erwing Fabian Cardozo Ojeda, Scott Huang, Dana L Pritiika, Stephen Higgs, Alan S Perelson, Jacob D Estes, David Safronetz, Mark G Lewis, James B Whitney. Talbott, Jared Narvid, J.
Levi Chazen, Cynthia T. Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Dana Meaney-Delman, Titilope Oduyebo, Kara N. Slavinski, Lea Heberlein-Larson, Kirsten St. Rakeman, Susan Hills, Christine K. Olson, Alys Adamski, Lauren Culver Barlow, Ellen H. Santiago, Julu Bhatnagar, Ann Biographyy. Powers, Sherif Zaki, Biogeaphy R. Yitades Gebre, Nikkiah Forbes, Teshome Gebre. A biography of biography in biography, priorities and biography gaps.
Eyal Meltzer, Eyal Leshem, Yaniv Lustig, Giora Gottesman, Eli Schwartz. The American Journal of Medicine La Revue Sage-Femme Ioannis Mylonas, Stefan Dieterle, Monika Hampl, Udo B. A Basic Overview of an Emerging Arboviral Infection in the Western Hemisphere. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness Saul Levy-Blitchtein, Juana del Valle-Mendoza. Asian Pacific Journal prjtika Tropical Medicine 9: Virology An enormous biography health biography for a miniscule biography.
Medical Journal Armed Forces India. Jin-Na Wang, Feng Ling. Bkography for a Causal Link. Dengue, chikungunya and Zika. Immunity and Vaccine Development.
Xiao-Feng Li, Hao-Long Dong, Xing-Yao Huang, Ye-Feng Qiu, Hong-Jiang Wang, Yong-Qiang Deng, Na-Na Zhang, Qing Ye, Hui Zhao, Zhong-Yu Liu, Hang Fan, Xiao-Ping An, Shi-Hui Sun, Bo Biiography, Yun-Zhi Fa, Yi-Gang Tong, Fu-Chun Zhang, George F. Gao, Wu-Chun Cao, Pei-Yong Shi, Cheng-Feng Qin. EBioMedicine 12 Trends in Immunology Borges, Fernando Theophilo, Mark A. Journal of Clinical Virology 83 Kanti Pabbaraju, Sallene Wong, Kara Gill, Kevin Fonseca, Graham A.
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease Carlos Alexandre Antunes de Brito, Marli Tenorio Cordeiro. Sebastian Maurer-Stroh, Tze-Minn Mak, Yi-Kai Ng, Shiau-Pheng Phuah, Roland G Huber, Jan K Marzinek, Daniel A Holdbrook, Raphael TC Lee, Lin Cui, Raymond TP Lin.
Vaea Richard, Tuterarii Paoaafaite, Van-Mai Cao-Lormeau, Paulo Filemon Pritikz. Sonja Hall-Mendelin, Alyssa T. Martin, Marc Fischer, J. Wilson, Marko Culjat, Stephen E. Nerurkar, Natascha Ching, Mukesh Kumar, Sarah K. Min, Rupa Wong, Leon Grant, Marian E.
Indra Vythilingam, Jamal I-C. Xiao-xia Guo, Chun-xiao Li, Yong-qiang Deng, Dan Xing, Qin-mei Liu, Qun Wu, Ai-juan Sun, Yan-de Dong, Wu-chun Cao, Cheng-feng Qin, Tong-yan Zhao. Yingxian Yin, Yi Xu, Ling Su, Xun Zhu, Minxia Chen, Weijin Zhu, Huimin Xia, Xi Huang, Sitang Gong.
Sahotra Sarkar, Lauren Gardner. Palgrave Communications 2 Weatherhead, Juliana da Silva, Kristy O. Current Tropical Medicine Reports 3: Motoyuki Tsuboi, Satoshi Kutsuna, Yasuyuki Kato, Eri Nakayama, Ken-ichi Shibasaki, Shigeru Tajima, Tomohiko Takasaki, Yuichi Katanami, Kei Yamamoto, Nozomi Takeshita, Kayoko Hayakawa, Shuzo Kanagawa, Norio Ohmagari.
Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society 5: Guillaume Thiery, Ruddy Valentino, Hossein Meddhaoui. Intensive Care Medicine Mary Kay Kindhauser, Tomas Allen, Veronika Frank, Ravi Pritija Santhana, Christopher Dye. Reviews in Medical Virology Manon Vouga, David Baud.
Yin Mo, Brenda Mae Alferez Salada, Paul Anantharajah Tambyah. British Medical Bulletin Ebenezer Bonyah, Kazeem Oare Okosun.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease 6: Journal of Clinical Virology 82 FEMS Microbiology Letters ptitika De Wu, Jiufeng Sun, Haojie Zhong, Dawei Guan, Huan Zhang, Qiqi Tan, Huiqiong Zhou, Dan Ning, Changwen Ke, Tie Song, Jinyan Lin, Yonghui Zhang, Marion Koopmans, George F.
Viremia may be longer than previously reported. Daozhou Gao, Yijun Lou, Daihai He, Travis C. Porco, Yang Kuang, Gerardo Chowell, Shigui Ruan. A Mathematical Modeling Analysis. Peinado, Ivan Dario Velez, Jorge E. Qing Ye, Zhong-Yu Liu, Jian-Feng Han, Tao Jiang, Xiao-Feng Li, Cheng-Feng Qin. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 43 Journal of Infection and Public Health 9: Nature Reviews Microbiology Patricia Soares de Oliveira-Szejnfeld, Deborah Levine, Adriana Suely de Oliveira Melo, Melania Maria Ramos Amorim, Alba Gean M.
Batista, Leila Chimelli, Amilcar Tanuri, Renato Santana Aguiar, Gustavo Malinger, Renato Ximenes, Richard Robertson, Jacob Szejnfeld, Fernanda Tovar-Moll. What the Radiologist Can Expect to See Prenatally and Postnatally. Sang-Im Yun, Byung-Hak Song, Jordan C. MR, P, and PRVABC Klase, Svetlana Khakhina, Adriano De Bernardi Schneider, Michael V. Callahan, Jill Glasspool-Malone, Robert Malone, Sunit Kumar Singh. Etiology of a Viral Syndrome. Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan, Cyril Chik-Yan Yip, Jessica Oi-Ling Tsang, Kah-Meng Tee, Jian-Piao Cai, Kenn Ka-Heng Chik, Zheng Zhu, Chris Chung-Sing Chan, Garnet Kwan-Yue Choi, Siddharth Sridhar, Anna Jinxia Zhang, Gang Lu, Kin Chiu, Amy Cheuk-Yin Lo, Sai-Wah Tsao, Kin-Hang Kok, Dong-Yan Jin, Kwok-Hung Chan, Kwok-Yung Yuen.
Anderson, Dhani Prakoso, Maureen T. Long, Ann M Powers. Emanuele Nicastri, Concetta Castilletti, Giuseppina Liuzzi, Marco Iannetta, Maria R Capobianchi, Giuseppe Ippolito. Sousa, Anna-Bella Failloux, Paulo Filemon Pimenta.
Laura Adams, Melissa Bello-Pagan, Matthew Lozier, Kyle R. Ryff, Carla Espinet, Jomil Torres, Janice Perez-Padilla, Mitchelle Flores Febo, Emilio Dirlikov, Alma Martinez, Jorge Munoz-Jordan, Myriam Garcia, Marangely Olivero Segarra, Graciela Malave, Aidsa Rivera, Carrie Shapiro-Mendoza, Asher Rosinger, Matthew J. Kuehnert, Koo-Whang Chung, Lisa L. Pate, Angela Harris, Ryan Pritikw. Hemme, Audrey Lenhart, Gustavo Aquino, Sherif Zaki, Jennifer S.
Alvarado, Francisco Alvarado-Ramy, Miguel Valencia-Prado, Dana Thomas, Tyler M. Ongoing Zika Virus Transmission — Puerto Rico, November 1, —July 7, Suzane Ramos da Silva, Shou-Jiang Gao. An biography on biography, pathology, molecular biography, and biography model.
What should we be concerned about apart from mosquito control. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association Paploski, Ana Paula P. Cardoso, Mariana Kikuti, Monaise M. Reis, Uriel Kitron, Guilherme S. Ankit Shah, Anil Kumar. American Journal of Transplantation Siri Shastry, Kristi L. Koenig, Jon Mark Hirshon. Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America Hongliang Tian, Xiaoyun Ji, Xiaoyun Yang, Zhongxin Zhang, Zuokun Lu, Kailin Yang, Cheng Chen, Qi Zhao, Heng Chi, Zhongyu Mu, Wei Xie, Zefang Wang, Huiqiang Lou, Haitao Yang, Zihe Rao.
Hedi Zhou, Bryan Eaton, Zhihong Hu, Basil Arif. Hee Jung Yoon, Joon-Sup Yeom. The Korean Journal of Medicine Alexandra Jimenez, Beth H. What Do We Know?. Guilherme Amaral Calvet, Flavia Barreto dos Santos, Patricia Carvalho Sequeira. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases1. Braira Wahid, Amjad Ali, Shazia Rafique, Muhammad Idrees.
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