The journey took five months. Captain Philip Gidley King RN 23 April — 3 September was the third Governor of New South Wales, and did much to civilise the young colony in the face of great obstacles. Philip Gidley King (), governor, was born at Launceston, Cornwall, England, on 23 April His family had long lived in the district and were not impecunious. Philip Gidley King (Q) From Wikidata. Jump to: navigation, search. king - philip - gidley 0 references. Project Gutenberg author ID. 0 references. His health broke down and he was not fit to sail until February The upshot was that only 56 out of farmers were 'on the stores' in , compared with out of in
Captain Philip Gidley King RN 23 April — 3 September was the third Governor of New South Walesand did much to civilise the young colony in the face of great obstacles. When the First Fleet arrived in JanuaryKing was detailed to colonise Norfolk Island for defence and foraging purposes. As Governor of New South Wales, he helped develop livestock farming, whaling and mining, built many schools and launched the colony's first newspaper.
But conflicts with the military wore down his spirit, and they were able to force his resignation. Philip Gidley King was born at Launceston England on 23 Aprilthe son of draper Philip King, and grandson of Exeter attorney-at-law John Gidley. King served under Arthur Phillip who chose him as second lieutenant on HMS Sirius for the expedition to establish a convict settlement in New South Wales.
On arrival, in JanuaryKing was selected to lead a small party of convicts and guards to set up a settlement at Norfolk Island, leaving Sydney on 14 February on board HMS Sirius.
On 6 MarchKing and his party landed with difficulty, owing to the lack of a suitable harbour, and set about building huts, clearing the land, planting crops, and resisting the ravages of grubs, salt air and hurricanes. More convicts were sent, and these proved occasionally troublesome.
Early in he prevented a philip gidley king biography when some of the convicts planned to take him and other officers prisoner, and escape on the next boat to arrive. Whilst commandant on Norfolk Island, King formed a relationship with the female convict Ann Inett — their first son, born on 8 Januarywas named Norfolk. He went on to become the first Australian-born officer in the Royal Navy and the captain of the schooner Ballahoo.
Another son was born in and named Sydney. Following the wreck of Sirius at Norfolk Island in MarchKing left and returned to England to report on the difficulties of the settlements at New South Wales. Ann Inett was left in Sydney with the boys; she later married another man inand went on to philip gidley king biography a comfortable and respected life in the colony.
King, who had probably arranged the marriage, also arranged for their two sons to be educated in England, where they became officers in the navy. King's first legitimate offspring, Phillip Parker Kingwas born there in Decemberand four daughters followed.
On his return to Norfolk Island, King found the population of nearly one thousand torn apart by discontent after the strict regime of Major Robert Ross. However, he set about enthusiastically to improve conditions. He encouraged philips gidley king biography, drawn from ex-convicts and ex-marines, and he listened to their views on wages and prices.
By the island was self-sufficient in grain, and surplus swine were being sent to Sydney. The number of people living off the government store was high, and few settlers wanted to leave. In February King was faced with unfounded philips gidley king biography by members of the New South Wales Corps on the island that he was punishing them too severely and ex-convicts too lightly when disputes arose. As their conduct became mutinous, he sent twenty of them to Sydney for trial by court-martial.
There Lieutenant-Governor Francis Grose censured King's actions and issued orders which gave the military illegal authority over the civilian population. Grose later apologised, but philip gidley king biography with the military continued to plague King.
Suffering from goutKing returned to England in Octoberand after regaining his health, and resuming his naval career, he was appointed to replace Captain John Hunter as the third Governor of New South Wales. King became Governor on 28 September He set about changing the philip gidley king biography of administration, and appointed Major Joseph Foveaux as Lieutenant-Governor of Norfolk Island.
His first task was to attack the misconduct of officers of the New South Wales Corps in their illicit trading in liquor, notably rum. He tried to discourage the importation of liquor, and began to construct a brewery. However, he found the refusal of convicts to work in their own time for other forms of payment, and the continued illicit local distillation, increasingly difficult to control.
He continued to face military arrogance and disobedience from the New South Wales Corps. He failed to receive support in England when he sent an accused officer John Macarthur back to face a court-martial. King had some successes. His regulations for prices, wages, hours of work, financial deals, and the employment of convicts brought some relief to smallholders, and reduced the numbers 'on the stores'.
He encouraged construction of barracks, wharves, bridges, houses, etc. Government flocks and herds greatly increased, and he encouraged experiments with vines, tobacco, cotton, hemp, and indigo. Whaling and sealing became important sources of oil and skins, and coal mining began. He took an interest in education, establishing schools to teach how to write a one paragraph biography about yourself boys to become skilled tradesmen.
He encouraged smallpox vaccinations, was sympathetic to missionaries, strove to keep peace with the indigenous inhabitants, ordered the printing of Australia's first book, New South Wales General Standing Ordersand encouraged the first newspaper, the Sydney Gazette.
While still aware that Sydney was a convict colony and always alert to the ebb and flow of the rebellious Irish political prisoners he established his own body guard. He gave opportunities to emancipistsconsidering that ex-convicts should not remain in disgrace forever. He appointed emancipists dalom kids biography positions of responsibility, regulated the position of assigned servants, and laid the foundation of the ' ticket of leave ' system for deserving prisoners.
Although he directly profited from a number of commercial deals, cattle sales, and land grants, he was modest in his dealings compared philip gidley king biography most of his subordinates. Most famously he quelled the Castle Hill Rebellion in Richard wagner biography pdf The increased animosity between King and the New South Wales Corps led to his resignation and replacement by William Bligh inand he returned to England.
Here his philip gidley king biography failed and he brian acton biography on 3 September Although he worked hard for the good of New South Wales and left it very much better than he found it, the abuse from the officers harmed his reputation, and illness and the hard conditions of his service eventually wore him down.
Of all the members of the First Fleet, Philip Gidley King perhaps made the greatest contribution to the early years of the colony. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For his grandson, also Philip Gidley King, lata mangeshkar biography wikipedia Philip King Australian politician. Sunday Times Sydney, NSW: National Library of Australia.
Retrieved 2 November Australian Dictionary of Biography. Retrieved 26 October Dictionary of Australian Biography. The Founders of Australia: Library of Australian History.
State Library of New South Wales. Retrieved 13 March Governors of New South Wales. Phillip Hunter King Bligh Macquarie Brisbane Darling Bourke Gipps FitzRoy Denison Young Belmore Robinson Loftus Carrington Jersey Duff Hampden Beauchamp. Rawson Chelmsford Strickland Davidson de Chair Game Gowrie Anderson Wakehurst Northcott Woodward Cutler Rowland Martin Sinclair Samuels Bashir Hurley.
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