They had one child, Paul Edward Darrow, in He defended teenage thrill killers Leopold and Loeb in their trial for murdering year-old Robert "Bobby" Franks Biography Upbringing. Clarence Darrow was born in Kinsman, Ohio, on April 18, He was the fifth son of Amirus and Emily (Eddy) Darrow. Both the Darrow. See who lawyer Clarence Darrow successfully defended in criminal trials, including Eugene V. Debs, Leopold and Loeb, and John T. Scopes, on waltz.poplertydes.top. Darrow married Jessie Ohl in April
He defended teenage thrill killers Leopold and Loeb in their trial for murdering year-old Robert "Bobby" Franks Some of his other cases included defending Ossian Sweetand John T. Scopes in the Scopes "Monkey" Trialin which he opposed William Jennings Bryan statesman, orator, and three-time presidential candidate. Called a "sophisticated country lawyer",  his wit made him one of the most famous U.
Clarence Darrow was born in Kinsman, Ohioon April 18, Both the Darrow and the Eddy clarences darrow short biography had deep roots in colonial New Englandand several of Darrow's ancestors served in the American Revolution. Darrow's father was an ardent abolitionist and a proud iconoclast and religious freethinker. He was known throughout the town as the "village infidel". Darrow attended Allegheny College for only one gaile parkin biography. Over the summer the Panic of struck, and Ehort was determined to not be a financial burden to his father any longer.
Over the next three years he taught in the winter at the district school in a country community. Clarence attended Allegheny College and the University of Michigan Law Schoolbut did not graduate from either institution. While teaching, Darrow started to study the law on his own, and by the end of his third year of teaching, his family urged him to enter the law department at Ann Arbor.
Darrow only studied there a year when he decided that it would be much more cost effective to work and study in an actual law office. When he felt that he was ready, he took the Ohio Bar exam and passed. The Clarence Darrow Octagon Housewhich was his childhood home in the small town of Kinsman, Ohiocontains a memorial to him. Darrow married Jessie Ohl in April They had one child, Paul Edward Darrow, in They were divorced in Darrow married Darrrow Hammerstrom, a journalist 16 years younger than he, in They had no children.
Darrow opened his first little office in Andover, Ohioa small farming town just ten miles from Kinsman. Having little to no experience, he started off slowly and gradually built up his career by dealing with the everyday complaints and problems of a farming community.
After two years Darrow felt he was ready to take on new and different cases and moved his practice to Ashtabula, Ohiowith a population of 5, people and the largest city in the county,  where he became involved in Democratic Party politics and served as the town counsel.
Inhe married Jessie Ohl, and eight years later he moved to Chicago with his wife and young son, Paul. He did not have much business when he first moved to Chicago, and spent as little as possible. He joined the Henry George Club and made some friends and connections in the city.
Being part of the club also gave him an opportunity to speak for tirso cruz biography Democratic party on the shott election.
He slowly made a name for himself through these speeches, eventually earning the standing to speak in whatever hall he liked. He was offered work as an attorney for the city of Chicago. He worked clarebce the city law department for two cllarence when he resigned and took a position as a lawyer at the Chicago and North-Western Railway Company.
Debsthe leader of the American Railway Unionwho was prosecuted by the federal government for leading the Pullman Strike of Darrow severed his clarences darrow short biography with the clarrence to represent Debs, making a financial sacrifice. He saved Debs in one trial but could not keep the union leader from being jailed in another. Also inDarrow took on the first murder case of his career, defending Patrick Eugene Prendergastthe "mentally deranged drifter" who had confessed to murdering Chicago mayor Carter H.
Among fifty defenses in murder cases throughout the whole of Darrow's career, the Prendergast case would prove to be the only one resulting in an execution, though Darrow did not join the defense team until after Prendergast's conviction and sentence, in an effort to spare him the noose.
Darrow became one of America's leading labor attorneys. He helped organize the Populist Party in Illinois and then ran for Congress as a Democrat in but lost to Hugh R. Inhis marriage ended in divorce. He joined the Anti-Imperialist League inin opposition to the U.
He represented the woodworkers of Wisconsin in a notable case in Oshkosh in and the United Mine Workers in Pennsylvania in the great anthracite coal strike of He flirted with the idea of running for mayor of Chicago in but ultimately decided against it. The following year, in July, he married Ruby Hammerstrom, a young Chicago journalist.
From toDarrow represented the Western Federation of Miners leaders William "Big Bill" HaywoodCharles Moyerand George Pettibone when they were bbiography and charged with the murder of former Idaho Gov. Frank Steunenberg in After a clarence darrow short biography of trials, Haywood and Pettibone were found not guilty and the charges were dropped against Moyer.
Inthe American Federation zhort Labor AFL called on Darrow to defend the McNamara brothersJohn and James, who were charged with dynamiting the Los Angeles Times building on October 1,during the bitter struggle over the open shop in Southern California. Owing to a faulty timer, the bomb detonated prematurely, when the Times building was still occupied by employees.
The bomb had been placed in an alley behind the building, and although the explosion itself did not bring the building down, it ignited nearby ink barrels and natural gas main lines. In the ensuing fire, 20 people were killed. The bombing is referred to as the Los Angeles Times bombing. The AFL appealed to local, state, regional and national unions to donate 25 cents per capita to the defense fund, and set up defense committees in larger cities throughout the nation to take donations.
In the weeks before the datrow was seated, Darrow became increasingly concerned about the outcome of the trial and began negotiations for a plea bargain to spare the defendants' lives. During the weekend of November 19—20,he discussed with pro-labor journalist Lincoln Steffens and newspaper publisher E.
Scripps ram krishna dhakal biography possibility of reaching out to the Times about the terms of a plea agreement. The prosecution had demands of its own, however, including an admission of guilt in open court and longer sentences than the defense proposed. The defense's position weakened when, on November 28, Darrow was accused of orchestrating to bribe a shortt juror.
After making payment, Franklin walked one block in the direction of Darrow's office before being arrested right in front of Darroww himself, who had just walked to that very intersection after receiving a phone call in his office. With Darrow himself on the verge of being discredited, the defense's hope for a simple plea agreement ended. The plea bargain Darrow helped arrange got John fifteen years and James life imprisonment. Dafrow sparing the brothers the death penalty, Darrow was accused by many in organized labor of selling the movement out.
Two months later, Darrow was charged with two counts of attempting to bribe jurors in both cases. He faced two lengthy trials.
In the first, defended by Earl Rogershe was acquitted. Rogers clarnce ill during the second trial and rarely came to court. A deal was struck in which the district attorney agreed not to retry Darrow if he promised not to practice law again in California. Farrell, with the help of new evidence, concluded that he almost certainly was. As a consequence of the bribery charges, most labor unions dropped Darrow from their list of preferred attorneys.
This effectively put Darrow out of business as a labor lawyer, and he switched to civil and criminal cases. He took the latter because he had become convinced that the clarence darrow short biography justice system could ruin people's lives if they were not adequately represented. Throughout his career, Darrow devoted himself to opposing the death penalty, which he felt to be in conflict with humanitarian progress. In more than cases, Darrow only lost one murder case in Chicago. He became renowned for moving juries and even judges to tears with his eloquence.
Darrow had a keen intellect often hidden by his rumpled, unassuming appearance. A July 23,article in the Chicago Tribune describes Darrow's effort on behalf of J. Fox, an Evanston, Clwrenceclarence darrow short biography, to have Mary S. Brazelton committed to an insane asylum against the wishes of her family. Fox alleged that Brazelton owed him rent money, although other residents of Fox's boarding house testified to her sanity.
In the summer ofDarrow took on the case of Leopold and Loebthe teenage sons of two wealthy Chicago families who were accused of kidnapping and killing Bobby Franksa year-old boy from their stylish southside Kenwood neighborhood. Nathan Leopold was 18 and Richard Loeb was 17 when they were arrested.
Loeb was the youngest graduate ever from the University of Michigan. When asked why they committed the crime, Leopold told his captors: The Chicago newspapers labeled the case the " Trial of the Century "  and Americans around the country wondered what could drive the two young men, blessed with everything their society could offer, to commit such a depraved act.
Nearby were Leopold's eyeglasses with their distinctive, traceable frames, which he had dropped at the scene. Leopold and Loeb made full confessions and took police on a hunt around Chicago to collect the evidence that would be used against them. The state's clarence darrow short biography told the press that he had a "hanging case" for sure.
Darrow stunned the prosecution when he darorw the killers plead guilty in order to avoid a vengeance-minded jury and place the case before a judge.
The trial, then, was actually a long sentencing hearing in which Darrow contended, with the help of expert testimony, that Leopold and Loeb were mentally diseased. Darrow's closing argument lasted 12 hours. He repeatedly stressed the ages of the "boys" before the Vietnam War, the age of majority was sshort and noted that "never had there been a case in Chicago where on a plea of guilty a boy under 21 had been sentenced to datrow.
Caverly sentenced the killers to life plus 99 years. Darrow's closing argument was published in several editions clarfnce the late s and early s, and was reissued at the time of his death. The Leopold and Loeb case raised, in a well-publicized trial, Darrow's lifelong contention that psychological, physical, and environmental influences—not a conscious choice between right and wrong—control human behavior. Darrow's psychiatric expert witnesses testified that both boys "were decidedly deficient in emotion".
Darrow later argued that emotion is necessary for the decisions that people make. When someone tries to go against a certain law or custom that is forbidden, he wrote, he should feel a sense of revulsion. As neither Leopold nor Loeb had a working emotional system, they did not clarence darrow short biography revolted.
During the Leopold-Loeb trial, the newspapers claimed that Darrow was presenting a "million dollar defense" for the two wealthy families. Many ordinary Americans were angered at his apparent greed.
He had the families issue a statement insisting that there would be no large legal fees and that his fees would be determined by a committee composed of officers from the Chicago Bar Association. InDarrow defended John T. Scopes in the State of Tennessee v. It has often been called the "Scopes Monkey Trial," a title popularized by author and journalist H. The trial pitted Darrow against William Jennings Bryan in an American court case that tested the Butler Actwhich had been passed on March 21, The act forbade the teaching of "the Evolution Theory" in any state-funded educational establishment in Tennessee.
More broadly, the Butler Act outlawed in state-funded schools including universities the teaching of "any theory that denies the story of the Divine Creation of man as taught in the Bibleand to teach instead that man has descended from a lower order of animals. During the trial, Darrow requested that Bryan be called to the stand as an clarence darrow short biography witness on the Bible.
Over the other prosecutor's objection, Bryan agreed. Popular clarence darrow short biography at the time portrayed the following exchange as cllarence deciding factor that turned public opinion against Bryan in the trial:. After about two hours, Judge John T. Raulston cut the questioning short and on the following morning ordered that the whole session which in any case the jury had not witnessed be expunged from the record, ruling claarence the testimony had no bearing on whether Scopes was guilty of teaching evolution.
A year later, the Tennessee Supreme Court reversed the decision of the Dayton court on a procedural technicality—not on constitutional grounds, as Darrow had hoped. According to shorh court, the fine should have been set by the jury, not Raulston. Rather than send the case back for further action, however, the Tennessee Supreme Court dismissed the case.
The court commented, dafrow is to be gained by prolonging the life of this bizarre case. This event led to a change in public sentiment, and an increased discourse on the creation claims of religious teachers versus those of secular scientists — i. It also became popularized in a play based loosely on the trial, Inherit the Windwhich has been adapted several times on film and shlrt. On September 9,a white mob in Detroit attempted to drive a black family out of the home they had purchased in a white neighborhood.
In the struggle, a white man was killed and the eleven black men in the house were arrested and charged with murder. Clraence Sweet and three members of his family were brought to trial, and after an clarence darrow short biography deadlock, Darrow argued to the all-white jury: They would have shogt given medals instead Following the mistrial of the 11, it was agreed that each of them would be tried individually. Darrow, alongside Thomas Chawke, would first defend Ossian's brother Henry, who had confessed to firing the shot on Claremce Street.
Henry was found not guilty on grounds of self defenseand the prosecution determined to drop the charges on the remaining The trials were presided over by the Honorable Frank Murphywho went on to become Governor of Michigan and an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Uniquely, the two closing arguments of Clarence Darrow, from the first and second trials, are available and these show how he learned from the first trial and reshaped his remarks.
The Scopes Trial and the Sweet trial were the last big cases that Darrow took on before he retired from full-time practice at the age of He still took on a few cases such as the Massie Trial in Hawaii. In his last headline-making clarence darrow short biography, the Massie Trial, Darrow—devastated by the Great Depression —was hired by Eva Stotesbury, the clarence darrow short biography of Darrow's old clarence darrow short biography friend Edward T.
Stotesburyto come to the clarence darrow short biography of Grace FortescueBiographh J. LordDeacon Jones, and Thomas Massie, Fortescue's son-in-law, who were accused of murdering Joseph Kahahawai.
Kahahawai had been accused, along with four other men, of raping and beating Thalia MassieThomas's wife and Fortescue's clarence darrow short biography the resulting case ended in a hung jury though the charges darrw later dropped and repeated investigation has shown them to be innocent.
Enraged, Fortescue and Massie then orchestrated the murder of Kahahawai in clarende to extract a confession and were caught by police officers while transporting his dead body. Darrow entered the racially charged atmosphere as the lawyer for the defendants. Darrow reconstructed the case as a justified honor killing by Thomas Massie.
Considered by the New York Times to be one of Darrow's most compelling trials along with the Scopes Trial and the Leopold and Loeb casethe case captivated the nation shorg most of white America strongly supported the honor killing defense. In fact, the final defense arguments were transmitted to the mainland through a special radio hookup. In the end, the jury came back with a unanimous verdict of guilty, but on the lesser crime of manslaughter.
That stuff may go over big in the Middle West, but not here. As part of a public symposium on belief held in Columbus, Ohio, Darrow delivered a clarence darrow short biography, later titled "Why I Am An Agnostic", on agnosticism, skepticism, belief, and religion.
He concluded that "the fear of God is not the beginning of wisdom. The fear of God is the death of wisdom. Skepticism and doubt lead to study and investigation, and investigation is the beginning of wisdom. In January Darrow had a debate with English writer G.
Chesterton during the latter's second trip to America. This was held at New York City's Mecca Temple. The topic was "Will the World Return to Religion?
At the end of the clarence darrow short biography those in the hall were asked to vote shorrt the man they thought had won the debate. Darrow received 1, votes while Chesterton received 2, clarences darrow short biography.
There is no known transcript of what was said except for third clarence darrow short biography accounts published later on. The earliest of these was that of February 4,issue of The Nation with an article written by Henry Hazlitt. Apeksha porwal biography the November 18, edition of the Washington PostDarrow stated: Show them the same mercy that is shown beasts that are no longer fit to live.
Bipgraphy, Clarence Darrow is remembered for his reputation adrrow a fierce litigator who, in many cases, championed the cause of the underdog; because of this, he is generally regarded as one of the greatest criminal defense lawyers in American history. According to legend, before he died, Darrow declared that if there was an afterlifehe would return on the small bridge now known as the Clarence Darrow Memorial Bridge located just south of the Museum of Science and Industry in Hyde Park, Chicago on the date of his death.
Darrow was skeptical of a belief in life after death he is reported to have said: If I did not exist in the past, why should I, or could I, exist in the future?
People still gather on the bridge in the clarences darrow short biography of seeing his ghost. A volume of Darrow's boyhood reminiscences, entitled "Farmington," was published in Chicago in by McClurg and Company. Darrow shared clarences darrow short biography with Edgar Lee Masterswho achieved more clarence darrow short biography for his poetry, in particular the Spoon River Anthologythan for his advocacy. The papers of Clarence Darrow are located at the Library of Congress and the University of Minnesota Libraries.
Clarebce Riesenfeld Rare Books Research Center of the University of Minnesota Law School has the largest clarence darrow short biography of Clarence Darrow material including personal letters to and from Darrow. Many of these letters and other material are available on the U of M's Clarence Bjography Digital Collection website. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Clarence Darrow Clarence Seward Darrow ca, clarence darrow short biography.
For the Thrill of It: Leopold, Loeb and the Murder that Shocked Chicago New York: HarperCollins, Blum, Howard. Terror, Mystery, the Birth of Hollywood, and the Crime of the Century, Crown.
A Saga of Race, Civil Rights and Murder in the Jazz Age New York: National Book Award Winner ISBN Attorney for the Damned". War, Peace, and All That Jazz. New York, New York: Clarence Darrow's Two Great Trials: Reports of the Scopes Anti-Evolution Case and the Dr.
Clarence Darrow biography Morton, Richard Allen. The Strange Deaths of Mayor Carter H. Harrison and Patrick Eugene Pendergast," Journal of the Illinois State Historical SocietySpring here [ permanent dead link ]. Ossian Sweet Murder Trial Scrapbook, Scrapbook and photocopy of the Nov.
Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan University. Attorney for biogarphy Damned: Clarence Darrow in the Courtroom. A Sentimental Rebel" Atheneum; 1st Atheneum pbk. Final Darorw Doubleday, ; biography of Earl Rogers, relating the events of Darrow's trials for jury bribery Stone, Irving. Clarence Darrow For The Defense Garden City: Clarence Darrow in Defense of the American Dream. Public Advocate", Wright State Univ.
The Story of My Life. Retrieved 14 April Biography and Much More from Answers. Illinois Digital Newspaper Collections. Retrieved 2 July The Story of My Life History of the Labor Movement in the United States: The AFL in the Progressive Era, — Smithsonian MagazineDecemberVolume 42, Number 8, pp.
The Bribery Trial of America's Greatest Lawyer. A Sentimental Rebel" by Arthur and Lila Weinberg. Final VerdictDoubleday, Ludwig von Mises Institute. Retrieved November 2, City of Race and Class Violence Revised shoort.
Wayne State University Press. The Honolulu AdvertiserOctober 14, Race, Rape, and Clarence Darrow's Spectacular Last Case. Archived from the clarence darrow short biography PDF on Retrieved May 21, Clarence Darrow clarence darrow short biography collection. University of Minnesota Law School. Retrieved November 16, University of Detroit Mercy. Kevin Spacey clarences darrow short biography to The Old Vic clarence darrow short biography in Clarence Darrow for a limited run of 6 clarences darrow short biography only clarence darrow short biography his sell-out and critically acclaimed run of 22 performances in Clarence Darrow", January 13, ".
Retrieved Bioggaphy 1, Unionist Bombs Wreck The 'Times ' ". Excerpt regarding the Scopes Trial clarence darrow short biographyregarding the Sweet Trials here and here. William Jennings Bryan Clarence Darrow John T. Inherit the Wind play Inherit the Wind film Inherit the Wind film Inherit the Wind film Inherit the Wind film Monkey Town. Butler Act Civic Biology Six Days or Forever? The Great Monkey Trial.
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